"Just because a state is not liberal, it can still be a democracy. And in fact we also had to and did state that societies that are built on the state organisation principle of liberal democracy will probably be incapable of maintaining their global competitiveness in the upcoming decades and will instead probably be scaled down unless they are capable of changing themselves significantly."
Illiberal Democracy (also known as Majoritarian Authoritarianism) is an authoritarian ideology which calls for an elected government which lacks the fundamental characteristics of a liberal democracy.
Advocates of illiberal democracy agree with liberal democrats that elected representatives should rule. However, they favor (in almost all cases) a dominant party system or one-party state. They also support heavy centralization, which limits the amount of power actually shared with commoners. Illiberal democracies also tend to:
- Limit or abolish pluralism, as the ruling party sees itself as the most fit to rule and they attempt to exclude others from challenging their authority.
- Disregard constitutional limits (e.g., checks and balances) and the rule of law, often in favor of perceived pragmatism or to fulfill self-serving ends.
- Rig elections or manipulate their results so the ruling party has enough votes to stay in power.
- Have (in many cases) an autocratic executive authority who enjoys dictatorial powers, even if term limits are in place or they can be voted out of office.
Competitive Authoritarianism is a type of illiberal democracy in which liberal-democratic institutions remain the source of political power. The ruling party in a Competitive Authoritarian regime, however, wields an unfair advantage in elections by abusing government institutions, limiting media coverage of opposition parties, persecuting those deemed too dangerous to state interests, and in rare cases electoral results are manipulated. But the ruling party still allows opposition parties within the Overton window to compete with them for power, allowing minimal pluralism. Such regimes are often backed by powerful state bureaucracies, as is the case in Singapore and Japan.
Authoritarian Liberal Democracy describes a hybrid regime combining elements from Liberal Democracy and Authoritarianism. AuthLibDem governments entail power being concentrated in the hands of unaccountable officials—typically unelected bureaucrats and elected representatives who benefit from increased political apathy alike—which leads to a reduction in civil liberties. Local administrations, which tend to be the most truly democratic in the sense of high activity among citizens, end up being subservient to a highly centralized government, increasing political apathy. Liberal institutions which are supposed to be impartial actors (e.g., courts) end up serving partisan goals and their associated special interest groups. AuthLibDem governments also empower federal law enforcement agencies and routinely violate civil or constitutional rights (e.g., the Espionage Act and the Patriot Act, under American Presidents Woodrow Wilson and George H.W. Bush, respectively). It can be argued AuthLibDem regimes combine technocratic and electocratic elements.
Illiberal Direct Democracy blends elements of Illiberal Democracy with Direct Majoritarianism. While illiberal democracies tend to have representative governments, illiberal direct democracies give power directly to the citizens. However, an illiberal direct democracy will be highly centralized and there are few if any constitutional limits on the power the majority of citizens—as well as political officials often appointed through sortition—can exercise. As such, illiberal direct democracies reject the rule of law. In addition, the will of the minority is typically disregarded, making it non-pluralist. In many cases, a single party introduces direct majoritarianism as a way to rush their political agendas.
The best examples of illiberal direct democracy include Libya under Mummar Gaddafi and Revolutionary France under the Jacobins. More recently, Viktor Orbán has blended illiberal democracy with elements of semi-direct democracy, regularly holding referendums.
Electocracy is a mild form of illiberal democracy. Representatives are democratically elected in free and fair elections, but due to a variety of factors, namely centralization, the average person has minimal or no say in daily politics as the government does not its power. This results in a situation where elected representatives have little accountability, capable of doing whatever they wish outside of election cycles. Thailand under Thaksin before the 2006 military coup was an electocracy. Iraq today is considered an electocracy as well.
Totalitarian Democracy is an extreme form of illiberal democracy that entails a democratically elected leadership and active political engagement among the masses, but the government exhibits totalitarian tendencies. A totalitarian democracy is typically a one-party state where leaders exercise dictatorial powers: Attempting to control every aspect of public life through propaganda and forcing everyone to comply with their ideological agenda. The term was coined by J. L. Talmon to describe Revolutionary France under Maximilien Robespierre. While he led a surface-level democracy, he attempted to control every aspect of French life through state-sponsored terror, political persecution, and censorship. Talmon controversially argues Rousseau's "general will" justifies such a style of government. It has a lot of overlap with electocracy due to the heavy centralization and lack of accountability, but they go to extreme ends to mold society in their image from the top-down.
There are five types of authoritarian democracies: Bonapartist, Fascist, Democratic Centralist, People's Democratic, and Machiavellian. The Bonapartians believe that when the authoritarian leader is elected he should have the confidence of the people and that the enlightened authority that is responsive to the needs and clamour of the people.
The Fascists on the other hand reject the conventional concept of democracy as in a majoritarian democracy that assumes equality of citizens and rather has it replaced by a corporatist representation of state-sanctioned corporate groups that would unite people into interest groups to address the state that would act in the interest of the general will of the nation and thus exercise an orderly form of popular rule.
Democratic Centralism is a practice in which political decisions reached by voting processes are binding upon all members of the political party. Although mainly associated with Leninism, wherein the party's political vanguard composed of professional revolutionaries practised democratic centralism to elect leaders and officers as well as to determine policy through free discussion, then decisively realised through united action, democratic centralism has also been practised by social democratic parties.
People's Democracy believes that a multiparty system can exist within a Marxism-Leninist government. It emerged from the Anti Fascist movements within ML circles. It was deemed needed by some to form a popular front against fascists and bourgeois reactionaries. This system was used mostly across Eastern Europe, but also in other countries like Nepal. It was also used by non-Marxist, yet still (nominally) socialist countries like Syria, with the National Progressive Front.
Machiavellians believe that representative democracy (a "commonwealth republic") is inherently oligarchic and for this reason embrace it. They believe such a government results in power being concentrated in the hands of a bureaucratic elite which utilizes democratic institutions to stay in power. They believe such a bureaucracy will manipulate and cater to the masses as well, meaning their interests are incidentally aligned with the common folk.
Gilmourism is based on the thoughts of Scottish political figure William Weir Gilmour.
He was born in Lanarkshire, United Kingdom at 1905 and started out working as a miner while he was at one time a mining surveyor based at a small village called Annathill but also in 1920, he was elected to the Institution of Mining Engineers.
In 1931, William Weir Gilmour worked as a salesman but he started his political activity in his birthplace location as a member of the "Independent Labour Party" 1893-1975 in which He was a delegate to the Glasgow Trades along with the Labour Council and then his first public candidature came at the 1931 General Election but later he joined the "New Party" 1931-1932 recently founded by Oswald Mosley and he fought the Lanarkshire seat of Coatbridge but without success with 674 votes.
In 1933, William Weir Gilmour along with Major Hume Sleigh founded the "Scottish Democratic Fascist Party" (SDFP) in Edinburgh while the it sought to get rid of Christian Catholicism by prohibit Irish Immigration to Scotland, expel Catholic religious orders from Scotland and repeal the Education Act 1918 in which allowed Catholic schools into the state system funded through education rates. Catholics are not permitted to join the political party while it explained their Anti-Catholic rationale as being that the party was "Scotland First" and alleged that it did not wish to establish a dictatorship while not publicly advocating violence but the party had the "Defence Corp" to keep order at party meetings but also members of the "Defence Corp" are blackshirts while members of the party are blueshirts.
The "Scottish Democratic Fascist Party" (SDFP) was at odds with the "British Union of Fascists" (BUF) 1932-1940 particularly over the issue of Catholicism in which they are accused of having Catholics making up a high percentage of membership even in Northern England while William Weir Gilmour denouncing the British Fascists as being run by Catholics, organised by Catholics & in the interests of Roman Catholics and later Gilmour opined that the party's virulent Anti-Catholicism may have unintentionally undermined Fascism in Scotland by putting off prospective Catholic recruits.
In June 12th 1933, William Weir Gilmour founded the monthly newspaper called the "Commonwealth" but only two issues were published though while the "Scottish Democratic Fascist Party" failed to attract wide support and later the party begun remove the Anti-Catholic elements from its platform resulting in members leaving including Alexander Ratcliffe who is leader of the Scottish Protestant League (SPL) 1920-1940. In 1937, he was elected to Town Council at Peebles for which he remained a member for more than 20 years but the "Scottish Democratic Fascist Party" was unknowingly dissolved and in the 1945 General Election after World War 2 he was organizer for the Labour & Co-operative Party candidates in Dumfriesshire while he was a frequent speaker on Labour platforms during the election but also acted as Election Agent for the Labour candidate.
Before the 1950 General Election, William Weir Gilmour moved to the Liberal Party (LP) 1859-1989 and somehow he managed to get himself chosen as the Liberal candidate to contest the election following boundary changes a new constituency of Midlothian & Peebles was created but the local liberal associations were still organised on the old boundaries along with the Peebles or the Southern Midlothian association in which covered much of the new seat publicly stated that they had never been consulted on the adoption of Gilmour as Liberal candidate because of his Fascist past. The Chairman of the association along one other committee member resigned in protest at Gilmour's selection and the association secretary said "Councillor Gilmour was not adopted by the Association and we are making no recommendation to Liberals as to how they should vote". In the 1950 General Election, William Weir Gilmour along with the Liberal party generally lost the elections by finishing third with 4,365 votes that leads him to lose his deposit and he did not stand for parliament again.
In 1956, William Weir Gilmour was sent to a mental hospital to spent time here but later in 1957, he attracted national publicity when he criticised on the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) television news with obscene language and in 1970, Gilmour was sentenced to two years in prison for child sexual abuse grooming. In 1979, he published a book on Famous Scottish people and in 1998, he died at the age of 93.
Leccisism is based on the thoughts of Italian political figure Domenico Leccisi.
He was born in Molfetta, Italy on May 20th, 1920 but there is not much information about his childhood and he was a member of the National Fascist Party (PNF) 1921-1943 while also being a trade union leader. During World War Two 1939-1945, he served in Italian Cavalry Army/Arma Di Cavalleria on the Invasion Of France along with the Balkan Front and then he joined the Italian Social Republic as an exponent of Left-Wing Fascism. During the Italian Civil War 1943-1945, In this period he published numerous articles in support of the Fascist government including Benito Mussolini along with supporting of Socialization of the economy but has entered into controversy with Minister Angelo Tarchi of The Corporate Economy regarding the alleged implementation delays and in April 25th, 1945, he wrote a speech in a newspaper called "Repubblica Fascista" during its last issue.
On November 2nd, 1945, he founded the Democratic Fascist Party 1945-1946 with Mauro Rana & Antonio Parozzi at the Odeon cinema in Milan and the action of this political party is by letting the members along with the followers set fire to the posters along with the billboards of a Anti-Fascist Comedy film called "Rome, Open City" directed by Roberto Rossellini. In January 1946, Rana along with other members occupied a printing house in Corso Garibaldi forcing employees to print copies of a political newspaper called "Lotta Fascista" a clandestine sheet that had a certain diffusion in the city in which was mainly dealt with by Brunilde Tanzi who was then a victim of the Volante Rossa on January 17th, 1947, and in April 11th, 1946, Domenico Leccisi sent a letter to Minister Giuseppe Romitafor of the Interior & Ettore Troilo who is the last perfect in which proposing a political compromise that would throw a catwalk between Fascism & Anti-Fascism on condition that the release the fascists from imprisonment in San Vittore along with permission to celebrate a mass in suffrage of the fallen of the Italian Social Republic but if he would have reserved the right to start the struggle in the name of his martyrs.
In April 22th 1946, during the night Domenico Leccisi, Mauro Rana, and Antonio Parozzi went to the Musocco Cemetery where they dug up Benito Mussolini's corpse from his unmarked grave to be taken away with a wheelbarrow to a village in the high mountains known as Madesimo in which causes an enormous national resonance and Minister Giuseppe Romita commissioned the best investigators to the end this manhunt of the matter. On April 29th 1946, Rana was arrested by the police but then in May 7th 1946, Leccisi delivered the body of Mussolini to the Church of Sant'Angelo and May 17th 1946, sixteen members of the Democratic Fascist Party are arrested but then Leccisi managed to disappear in time. In May 30th 1946, at the Piazza Del Duomo in Milan, Leccisi forced some operators to write on the luminous signs to praise Mussolini along with the invitation to read "Lotta Fascista" and in July 22th 1946, three other members of the political party were arrested but later in July 31th 1946, Leccisi along with Antonio Perozzi who is also a member of the party was finally arrested after the Volante Rossa knows about his address. On August 12th 1946, the remains of Mussolini were recovered by the Italian government to be transported at the Capuchin convent of Cerro Maggiore near Legnano in which remained there until 1957 and the remains of corpse was moved to Predappio.
In December 9th 1946, during the last days of the Democratic Fascist Party after a year of existing Brunilde Tanzi who is a member of this political party managed to replace a record during advertising broadcasts with the Fascist anthem called Giovinezza on the entire Piazza Del Duomo and the remaining members disbanded the political party on December 27th 1946 for a unknown reason.
Domenico Leccisi who has been known as a young militant political figure in the circles of Italian Neo-Fascism joined the Italian Social Movement (MSI) 1946-1995 as a national deputy from 1953 to 1963, along with being part of the X Commission and he had continuous clashes with the majority currents of the party because of his support of Left-Wing Fascism. In 1958, Leccisi was with Giorgio Almirante & Palmiro Togliatti who is a Communist supported the so-called "Milazzo Operation" in Sicily at which made possible the alliance to the government of the Region between the MSI and the Italian Communist Party 1921-1991.
In 1963, the Italian Social Movement (MSI) declared Domenico Leccisi's membership lapsed while excluding him from the party along with the subsequent elections but he returned as municipal councilor in Milan and later he retired to his private life in which he declared himself against the transformation of the (MSI) into the National Alliance (AN) 1995-2009. Leccisi was also a Milan city councilor and wrote an autobiography book called "With Mussolini Before and After Piazzale Loreto".
In November 2nd 2008, Domenico Leccisi died at the age of 88 while being hospitalized at the Pio Albergo Trivulzio due to problems with his body.
On March 12, 1934 Johan Laidoner, Konstantin Päts and August Rei launched a bloodless military coup against Päts' own gouvernment under the pretext of preventing a potential election of Andres Larka, a member of the quasi-Fascist Vaps movement for the position of state elder. A nationwide state of emergency was declared and purges against the Vaps movement and Communists were conducted. The following period is known in Estonia as the "Era of Silence", due to the suspension of civil liberties (notably the freedom of speech) during that time. The activities of all political parties got suspended, the Patriotic League of Estonia was formed as the only legal quasi-party, representing the views of the establishment. However Independent candidates were still allowed to run for office. In 1938, after a referendum, a new Constitution was adapted, most political prisoners were freed and restrictions were lifted, which is seen by most as the end of the Era of Silence.
Orbanism is an economically center to center-right, culturally right-wing, and strongly authoritarian ideology used to represent prime minister of hungary Viktor Orban.
Main Articles: Neoconservatism, McCarthyism, and Police Statism
- Ernesto Geisel - Ernesto Geisel was a former president of Brazil during the military dictatorship, he was also a former president of Petrobras and a former minister of the Military Cabinet and the Superior Court Military.
His government became known for the beginning of the transition to democracy, in which he stated that it would be "slow, gradual and safe", in addition to having abolished the AI-5, that is, abolishing the law that institutionalized torture. Even with some democratic reforms, there were still years with setbacks, in which journalists were persecuted and authorized the execution of 100 subversives (with the support of William Colby and Henry Kissinger), in addition to having approved the April Package, then temporarily closing the national congress. .
The economy under his management was developmental and State Capitalist, leaving an economic legacy of recession and increase in debt being later assumed by João Figueredo, even though in the midst of his government he had some economic improvements. There was participation of the private sector, but with the participation of the state similar to State Capitalism, in addition to having created some state-owned companies, generally to promote well-being such as the National Institute of Medical Assistance of Social Security (INAMPS) and Educational Credit.
There was also recognition of newly independent African countries from Portugal, diplomatic improvements with China and a decrease in dependence on the United States. Other things were the construction of various public works, legalization of divorce and amnesty for exiles.
Main Article: White Nationalism
Main Article: Ethnocracy
Main Articles: Kemalism and Neo-Ottomanism
Main Articles: Monarcho-Capitalism and Khomeinism
Main Article: Hindutva
- Sheikh Hasina was Prime Minister of Bangladesh twice, the first time in 1996, leaving in 2001, and the second time in 2009, remaining until today.
She is considered to be Bangladesh's first female minister, who in the first time in power in 1996, she signed the water sharing treaty with India and started opening up to the private sector such as the telecommunications industry and the introduction of NIP ( New Industrial Policy), allowing foreign companies to open subsidiaries. The Awami League (her party) lost the 2001 elections, causing her to leave, even though she claimed the elections had been a rigging. After the defeat, she was part of the opposition to the later government.
She won the 2008 elections, serving as prime minister for the second time, having 3 consecutive terms. She has been accused of various rights abuses and violence against opponents, in addition to having been accused of corruption and having rigged the 2018 elections, suffering a coup attempt in 2012 by Islamic extremists. She called for further development of postal services in response to the Covid-19 pandemic.
Main Article: Tridemism
Main Article: Dengism
Petitioning ( 信访, xìnfǎng, "letters and visits") is an administrative system for hearing complaints and grievances from individuals in the People's Republic of China which is meant to serve as an alternative form of democracy within a one-party state. The petitions can take many forms, including phone calls, faxes, visits or even e-mails to any government office with regard to any of the issues with the purpose of holding directly-elected local officials accountable for their actions. . Petitioners may begin their attempts for redress at the local level with letters and calls to offices, which are located in courthouses or in township-level government offices. If unsatisfied, they can move up the hierarchy to provincial-level offices and, at the highest level, the National Public Complaints and Proposals Administration in Beijing. Official statistics indicate that petition offices annually handled around 10 million inquiries and complaints from petitioners from 2003 to 2007.
However, this system is not without its flaws. Provincial capitals have been accused of hiring people in Beijing to abduct petitioners who have travelled from their areas and force them to go back home in a process known as "intercepting." Human rights organizations have accused Chinese authorities of arbitrarily imprisoning large numbers of petitioners in black jails or other illicit detention facilities. It's generally suspected that the Communist Party allows and encourages petitioning to identify and locate dissidents.
Main Article: Dengism
Main Article: FLNism
Niger is a current example of Authoritarian Democracy, in which elections take place regularly, but according to the Democracy Index, Niger has a score of 3.22, being more authoritarian than Russia and Iraq. Current President Mohamed Bazoum and Prime Minister Ouhoumoudou Mahamadou are from the Nigerien Party for Democracy and Socialism, in which it proclaims itself social democratic and socialist democratic, even though authoritarianism has increased and currently Niger is one of the poorest countries in the world and has a high degree of corruption. The economy is based on subsistence agriculture and uranium reserves and according to heritage foundation 2020, Niger is a difficult country to open a business, being more difficult than Laos and Guyana
(easier than Brazil and Argentina). 
- Mahamadou Issoufou - Mahamadou Issoufou was former president of Niger (2011-2021), former prime minister (1993-1994), former president of the national assembly and former president of the Economic Community of West African States.
As president of Niger, he promoted developmentalism and economic growth and promised to increase jobs, well-being for the people and the promotion of democracy, even though he was accused of authoritarianism and repression against protests, after the government banned gatherings as a way of to prevent Covid-19. He was also one of the promoters of the African Continental Free Trade Zone and carte blanche for the French army, later he received the Ibrahim award.
Main Articles: Kleptocracy and Populism
- Frederick Chiluba was a Zambian politician who was the second president of Zambia from 1991 to 2002. Chiluba, a trade union leader, won the country's multi-party presidential election in 1991 as the candidate of the Movement for Multi-party Democracy, defeating long-time President Kenneth Kaunda. He was re-elected in 1996. As he was unable to run for a third term in 2001.
During his presidency, Chiluba showed hints of Ethnonationalism because he wanted to deport Kenneth Kaunda on the grounds that he was Malawian. Surprisingly, as a member of the Social Democratic, Third Way party, he started a rapid privatization that reduced the standard of living of Zambians. In 1997, after a failed coup, Chiluba declared a state of emergency and began imprisoning suspects, including Kaunda whom he accused of orchestrating the coup. After leaving office, Chiluba was the subject of a long investigation and trial regarding alleged corruption.
Personality and Behavior
- He speaks French, Italian, Romanian, Portuguese and Spanish.
- He is very cold and strict to others unless he's talking to apolitical where he is very energetic.
- He likes security more than his dad Democracy.
- He also claims to hate corruption in all its forms.
How to Draw
- Draw a ball,
- Draw an upside-down triangle, taking up the entire middle,
- Colour the triangle blue,
- Fill the space to the left of the triangle in red, and the space to the right in green,
- Draw a white square in the centre of the blue triangle,
- Add the eyes, and you're done!
|Red||#FF0000||255, 0, 0|
|Green||#00DD00||0, 221, 0|
|Blue||#0000FF||0, 0, 255|
|White||#FFFFFF||255, 255, 255|
- Bonapartism - Thanks to your friend for creating me!
- Longism - Strong arming for the good of the people, EVERY MAN A
KINGDEMOCRATICALLY ELECTED OFFICIAL!
- Populism - Thanks for letting me oppress the people, people!
- Elective Monarchism - I find your system quite interesting but try putting some term limits in there ok? Well, at least is one notable example that really gets what I mean...
- Kritarchy - It's totally in the law that I can be president for life!
- Ochlocracy - My more direct variant. Sign me up for the tyranny of the majority.
- Defensive Democracy - [Insert political opponent] is a huge threat to our democracy!
- Athenian Democracy - The original democratic system had slavery, and that is a good thing.
- Apartheid - Proof that democracy works best when restricted to a small minority.
- Ilminism - Based South Korean.
- Mosaddeghism, Pahlavism, and Khomeinism - How is it possible for a country to be so consistently based as Iran regardless of who's in charge?
- Nehru Socialism, Indira Gandhi thought and Modiism - Same with India.
- Sanation, Gierekism and Kaczysm - Poland isn't the worst.
- Pancasila - You keep Indonesia toeing the line between democracy and dictatorship whether you're a socialist, an authcap, or a 3wayer.
- Bolsonarism - Praising Pinochet and ARENA while refusing to overturn elections makes you a great man.
- Democracy - Couldn't your leader just hold a little bit more power?
- Oligarchy - A sad fact of life but it's even worse when he uses it! Democracy for the few is based though.
- Authoritarianism - I like you, but I think the
controlledpeople should still have a say!
- Imperialism - My left-wing followers hate you but my right-wing ones such as Cecil Rhodes and Ian Smith strongly approve of your actions and argue that you brought civilization to tribal societies.
- Tridemism - You would've been perfect if you'd only ended martial law on paper and not given up power to the DPP.
- Nazism - I helped you to power but then you proceeded to backstab me!
- Showa Statism - Same as above. Kishi was pretty based though.
- Corporatocracy - I can't be bought
for less than a million. Also, a stock-based democracy is kinda based!
- Kleptocracy - Corruption is awful, except for when it is me doing it.
- Plutocracy - Same as above.
- Neoconservatism - Using wars to justify increasing police powers and persecuting whistleblowers is very based but you constantly attack my left-wing variants.
- Neoliberalism - Too liberal for my liking but Reagan, Thatcher, Macron, among others of your followers increased police powers.
- Third Way - Similar to the two above.
- Dengism - Not exactly what I want but petitioning and allowing other parties in a "united front" is quite based. And what you did in Hong Kong is great. (shame Xi got rid of good parts about you)
- Ba'athism - Saddam and Hafez were too extreme but at least Bashar ended martial law in 2012.
- European Federalism - Claims to hate me in Poland and Hungary. However, your actions against illegal immigrants through Frontex speaks otherwise.
- Japan LDPism - Too moderate but you were quite based during the Cold War and Japan dropped in press freedom under Shinzo Abe.
- Tatmadawism - You've definitely improved since days of Ne Win's totalitarian dictatorship but Min Aung Hlaing just had to destroy the little democracy Myanmar has achieved in the past two decades.
- Liberal Autocracy - My greatest enemy...
- Anarchism - A leader is needed for stability!
- Totalitarianism - Authority should be implemented through Democracy, not you!
- Ingsoc - WOAH! You managed to convince the people they want to be oppressed by you? Pure evil!
Might change my opinion if you taught me how to do it.
- Korwinism - What the fuck?
- Hoppeanism - WHAT THE ACTUAL FUCK?
- Anarcho-Monarchism - I REFUSE TO LISTEN TO A LITERAL OXYMORON!
- Illegalism - Subjugate to the People individualist trash!
Iliberal Democracy by Athena von Krab
- The Rise of Authoritarian Liberal Democracy by Peter Baofur
- Totalitarian democracy
- Illiberal Democracy
- Guided Democracy
- Taishō Democracy
- Hybrid regime
- Scottish Democratic Fascist Party
- Democratic Fascist Party
- illiberal democracies explained by Kraut
- Refers to situations where the government is democratically elected, but true power is in the hands of a bureaucratic elite. This has been used to describe Singapore and Japan, as well as the United States.
- A situation where there is an elected elite that uses authoritarian means to hold power, but still competes for power with opposition - permitting a limited but unfair degree of pluralism. Singapore would be an example of this.
- The r/niceguys subreddit can remove posts through voting after a new bot, QualityVote, was introduced this is generally meant to make sure that not all dissenting views of the subreddit and/or the dynamics of dating in general end up on the subreddit as not all misogynistic views on dating are really r/niceguy material, nonetheless, dissenting views even from users who support the subreddit's cause (calling out nice guy behavior) that aren't inherently misogynistic end up getting posted and shamed anyways. Note that this is an anecdote from personal experience and this is subject to change.
- Many self-proclaimed liberal governments (e.g., Andrew Jackson, Woodrow Wilson, FDR, Tony Blair, and Justin Trudeau) had major authoritarian elements.
- Throughout first period of revolution, Nagy remained steadfastly committed to Marxism; but his conception of Marxism was as "a science that cannot remain static", and he railed against the "rigid dogmatism" of "the Stalinist monopoly". He did not intend a full return to multi-party liberal democracy but a limited one within a socialist framework, and was willing to allow the function of the pre-1948 coalition parties.
- Only in his last years.
- Phibun abandoned fascism after WWII and was inspired by the west to democratize Thailand
- Russia under Putin still has multi-party elections, however it has moved towards autocracy and totalitarianism since 2022.
- Rodrigo Duterte is an example of this. He was legitimately voted out of office, but while in charge he suspended the haebus corpus, killed thousands of people without a trial, and sought to enrich his political allies.
- "THE RISE OF COMPETITIVE AUTHORITARIANISM" pages 52-53
- Napoleon was elected as Emperor of the French by a tally exceeding 99%. As with the Life Consulate two years earlier, this referendum produced heavy participation, bringing out almost 3.6 million voters to the polls. Source:Lyons, Martyn (1994). Napoleon Bonaparte and the Legacy of the French Revolution. St. Martin's Press.
- Data from 2022 was not used because almost all countries had sudden drops in economic freedom