List of movements/Political Parties/China

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List of Political Parties and Societies

Mainland China 中国大陆

统一战线 (United Front)[1]

非法党派 (Illegal and banned political parties)

歷史上的 (Historical)

Hong Kong 中華人民共和國香港特別行政區

* 亲北京阵营 (Pro-Beijing camp)

民主派 (Pro-democracy camp)

親國民黨派 (Pro-KMT camp)

本土派 (Localist groups)

Macau 中華人民共和國澳門特別行政區

親北京陣營 (Pro-Beijing camp)

民主派 (Pro-democracy camp)

Manchukuo 滿洲國 (1932–1945)

List of Leaders

Rulers of Ancient China

Note: The first generally accepted date in Chinese history is 841 BC, the beginning of the Gonghe (共和) regency. All dates prior to this are the subject of often vigorous dispute as the dates provided here are those put forward by The Xia–Shang–Zhou Chronology Project, the work of scholars sponsored by the Chinese government which reported in 2000. They are given only as a guide.

Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors(三皇五帝) (c. 3162 BC-c. 2070 BC)

Note: These figures are considered to be legendary and its authenticity are regarded as disputed.

Title Name by which most commonly known Reign (according to tradition) In Chinese
Huang1,4,5/Di3 Youchao 3162–2962 BC 有巢
Huang/Di3 Suiren 2962–2852 BC 燧人
Huang4/Di3 Fuxi 2852–2737 BC 伏羲
Huang1/Di1 Yan Emperor/Shennong 2737–2698 BC 炎帝 / 神農
Huang5/Di1,2 Yellow Emperor 2698–2598 BC 黃帝 / 軒轅
Di2 Shaohao 2597–2514 BC 少昊
Di1,2 Zhuanxu 2514–2436 BC 顓頊
Di1 Ku[2] 2436–2366 BC 帝嚳
Di1 Zhi 2366–2358 BC 帝摯
Di1 Yao (of Tang) 2356–2255 BC 帝堯 / 唐堯
Di1 Shun (of Yu) 2255–2208 BC 帝舜 / 虞舜

1 — According to the Records of the Grand Historian (《史記》).

2 — According to the Chu Ci (《楚辭》).

3 — According to the Book of Rites (《禮記》).

4 — According to the Shangshu dazhuan (《尚書大傳》) and Baihu tongyi (《白虎通義》).

5 — According to the Diwang shiji (《帝王世紀》)

Xia(夏) (c. 2070 BC - c. 1600 BC)

Shang(商)(c. 1600 - c. 1046 BC)

Zhou(周)(c. 1046 - 256 BC)

Western Zhou (西周) (c. 1046 - 771 BC)

Eastern Zhou (東周} (c. 771 - 256 BC)

Emperors of Imperial China (WIP)

Qin(秦)(221 - 206)

Han(漢)(202 BC – 9 AD; 25 - 220 AD)

Western Han (西漢) (202 BC - 9 AD)

Eastern Han (東漢) (25 - 220 AD)

Xin(新) (9 - 23 AD)

Cheng (成家) (25 - 36 AD)

Three Kingdoms(三國)(220 - 280)

Cao Wei(曹魏)(220 - 266)

Shu Han(蜀漢) (221 - 263)[3]

Eastern Wu(東吳)(222 - 280)

Jin(晉) (266 - 420)

Western Jin (西晉) (266 - 316)

Eastern Jin (東晉) (317 - 420)

Sixteen Kingdoms(十六國)(304 - 439)

Han Zhao (漢趙) (304 - 329)

Northern Han (北漢) (304 - 318)
Former Zhao (前趙) (318 - 329)

Cheng Han (成漢) (304 - 347)

Cheng (成) (304 - 338)
Han (漢) (338 - 347)

Later Zhao (後趙) (319 - 351)

Former Liang (前涼) (320 - 376)

Former Yan (前燕) (337 - 370)

Former Qin (前秦) (351 - 394)

Later Yan (後燕) (384 - 409)

Later Qin (後秦) (384 - 417)

Western Qin (西秦) (385 - 400, 409 - 431)

Later Liang (後涼) (386 - 403)

Southern Liang (南涼) (397 - 414)

Northern Liang (北涼) (397 - 439)

Southern Yan (南燕) (398 - 410)

Western Liang (西涼) (400 - 421)

Helian Xia (胡夏) (407 - 431)

Northern Yan (北燕) (407 - 436)

Northern and Southern Dynasties(南北朝)(420 - 589)

Northern Dynasties(北朝)(420 - 581)

Northern Wei (北魏)(386 - 534)
Eastern Wei (东魏) (534 - 550)
Western Wei (西魏) (535 - 557)
Northern Qi (北齐) (550 - 577)
Northern Zhou (北周) (557 - 581)

Southern Dynasties (420 - 589)

Liu Song (劉宋) (420 - 479)

Sui Dynasty(隋)

Tang Dynasty(唐)

Wuzhou Dynasty(武周)(690-705)

Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms(五代十國)

Liao/Khitan Dynasty(遼/契丹)

Song Dynasty (宋)

Name by which most commonly known Reign Temple name


Emperor Zhenzong (Zhao Heng) and Empress Zhangxian Mingsu 997 - 1022 真宗 Day-to-day rule of China was often placed in the hands of his third wife, Empress Liu due to illness.
Emperor Duzong of Southern Song (Zhao Qi) 1264-1274 神宗/惠宗
Deyou Emperor of Southern Song (Zhao Xian) 1276-1278 端宗 Brought alongside Empress Dowager Xie to surrender to Yuan forces. Ennobled as Duke of Ying for the rest of his life.
Jingyan Emperor of Southern Song (Zhao Shi) 1276-1278 端宗 Escaped To Fujian and later Guandong. Died in Jiangmen due to illness
Emperor Bing of Southern Song (Zhao Bing) 1278-1279 懷宗 Lu Xiufu committed suicide while being carried together.

Jin Dynasty

Yuan Dynasty(Dayan) (Khagan-Emperor of Mongol Empire)

Ming Dynasty(明)

Name by which most commonly known Reign Temple name


Hongwu Emperor 1368–1398 太祖
Jianwen Emperor 1398-1402 神宗/惠宗 Disappeared, whereabouts remain unknown after the Jingnan Campaign. Some speculated that he attained monkhood to conceal his identity.
Yongle Emperor 1402–1424 成祖 / 太宗
Emperor Yingzong 1435–1449 and 1457–1464 英宗 The only Emperor of Ming Dynasty that ruled twice due to being captured by the Mongols after a failed military campaign in 1449 (which he was granted the title Taishang Huang (太上皇) in between 1449-1457), under both era names Zhengtong (正統) and Tianshun (天順)
Chenghua Emperor 1464–1487 憲宗
Hongzhi Emperor 1487–1505 孝宗
Jiajing Emperor 1521-1567 世宗
Wanli Emperor 1572-1620 神宗
Taichang Emperor 1620 光宗 His reign was the shortest in Ming history, which didn't even exceed a month
Tianqi Emperor 1620-1627 熹宗 Puppet ruler, actual power seized and controlled by eunuch Wei Zhongxian and the emperor's wet nurse Madam Ke.
Chongzhen Emperor 1627–1644 思宗 / 毅宗 Committed suicide during the fall of Beijing
Hongguang Emperor 1644–1645 安宗 As Emperors of Southern Ming. All were captured and executed by Qing forces. Yongli Emperor was executed by Wu Sangui.
Longwu Emperor 1645–1646 紹宗
Yongli Emperor 1646–1662 昭宗

Xi Dynasty(大西)

A short-lived Chinese imperial dynasty that existed during the Ming–Qing transition. The dynasty, which lasted from 1643 to 1647, was established by the peasant rebellion leader Zhang Xianzhong, by proclaiming himself the title of the "king" (王) and later the "emperor" (皇帝) of the Great Xi

Name by which most commonly known Reign Era name Notes
Zhang Xianzhong 1643-1647 大順

Shun Dynasty(大順)

Shun Dynasty was a short-lived Chinese dynasty that existed during the Ming–Qing transition. The dynasty was founded in Xi'an on 8 February 1644, the first day of the lunar year, by Li Zicheng, the leader of a large peasant rebellion, by proclaiming himself "emperor" (皇帝) instead of the title "king" (王) before founding the dynasty.

Name by which most commonly known Reign Note
Li Zicheng 1644–1645 All three emperors of the Shun Dynasty share the same era name Yǒngchāng (永昌)
Li Ziqing 1645–1646
Li Guo 1646

Zhou Dynasty(大周)

In 1678, after revolting against the Qing Dynasty, Wu Sangui went a step further and declared himself the emperor of the "Great Zhou".

Name by which most commonly known Reign Temple name


Zhaowu Emperor/Wu Sangui 1644–1645 太祖
Honghua Emperor/Wu Shifan 1645–1646 Committed suicide

Qing Dynasty; Qing Empire; Daicing Gurun; Dulimbai Gurun(大清帝國)(原意為戰士之國)

The Qing imperial family name was Aisin Gioro (ᠠᡳᠰᡳᠨ ᡤᡳᠣᡵᠣ;愛新覺羅 Aixinjueluo), but it was not a common Manchu practice to include the family or clan name in an individual's personal name. Transitioned into a constitutional monarchy in 1911.

Name by which most commonly known Reign Temple name


Hong Taiji 1636–1643 太宗
Dorgon 1643-1650(Regent) 成宗 His fame of emperor was coronated by Shunji but revoked in 1651. He is also notorious for Tifayifu, bloody Yangzhou massacre.
Shunzhi Emperor 1643–1661 世祖
Kangxi Emperor (Elhe Taifin) 1661–1722 聖祖
Yongzheng Emperor (Hūwaliyasun Tob) 1722–1735 世宗
Qianlong Emperor (Abkai Wehiyehe) 1735–1796 高宗 Abdicated and held the title Taishang Huang (太上皇) for three years until his death
Jiaqing Emperor 1796–1820 仁宗
Daoguang Emperor 1820–1850 宣宗
Xianfeng Emperor 1850–1861 文宗
Tongzhi Emperor 1861–1875 穆宗 De facto rule by regency of Empress Dowager Cixi. Possibly died due to Syphilis or Smallpox
Guangxu Emperor 1875–1908 德宗 De facto rule by regency of Empress Dowager Cixi. Poisoned to death by Empress Dowager Cixi
Xuantong Emperor/Puyi 1908–1912, 1917 恭宗/遜帝 De facto ruled in a brief time in 1917 after the Manchu Restoration(Only 12 days)

Taiping Heavenly Kingdom (太平天國)

Name by which most commonly known Reign Notes
Hong Xiuquan 1851-1864 Posthumously executed by Qing forces
Hong Tianguifu 1864

Empire of China (中華帝國) (1915-1916)

A short-lived attempt by statesman and general Yuan Shikai who attempted to establish himself as emperor in 1915, but his rule was universally accepted as inauthentic. After 83 days, his reign ended.

Name by which most commonly known Reign Era name Notes
Yuan Shikai 1915-1916 洪憲

Notable Grand Chancellors(宰相)- WIP

Chancellors of Ancient China

Chancellors of Imperial China

Senior Grand Secretaries of Ming Dynasty[4]

Chief Councillors of Qing Dynasty[5]

Prime Minister of the Imperial Cabinet

Leaders of the Republic of China (1912-1949)

Presidents of the Provisional Government (1912-1913)

Presidents of the Beiyang Government (1912-1928) (WIP)

Chairmen of the Nationalist Government (1928-1947)

Leaders of Warlord states (1912-1949)

President of the Anhui Clique

Govenors of the Ma Clique

  • Ma Anliang (Governor of Gansu 1911-1918)
  • Ma Qi (Governor/Chairman of Qinghai 1915-1931)
  • Ma Hongbin (Governor of Ningxia 1921–1928;1948–1949 and Governor of Gansu 1930–1931)
  • Ma Lin (Governor of Qinghai 1931-1938)
  • Ma Bufang (Governor of Qinghai 1938-1949)
  • Ma Honkui (Governor of Ningxia 1938-1949)

Emperor of Manchukuo

President of the Republic of China (1948-1949 de jure, in-exile in Taiwan Province de facto)

People's Republic of China

Paramount Leaders of the People's Republic of China (Since October 1, 1949)

List of Chinese Presidents

List of Chairmen of the CCP (1945-1982) [6]

List of General Secretaries of the CCP (1982-) [7]

List of Chinese Premiers

Other High Ranking Chinese Politicians

Notes and References

  1. All parties within the united front have to follow 'Socialism with Chinese characteristics'. Nonetheless they can hold platforms beside that.
  2. According to legends, Emperor Ku was said to be an inventor of musical instruments and composer of songs
  3. The Shu Han emperors are more often referred to as 先主 ("Former Master") and 后主 ("Latter Master") in Chinese historiography.
  4. After the death of Hu Weiyong, the title of grand chancellor was abolished. The office of the Grand Secretariat assumed the de facto powers of the chancellery after the reign of the Hongwu Emperor.
  5. The Qing dynasty bureaucratic hierarchy did not contain a chancellor position. Instead, the duties normally assumed by a chancellor were entrusted to a series of formal and informal institutions, the most prominent of which was the Grand Council. Occasionally, one minister may held enough power in the government that he comes to be identified, figuratively, as the "chancellor".
  6. the position of chairman was replaced with general secretary in 1982
  7. since 1989 the paramount leader has also been the general secretary and since Jiang Zemin the general secretary has been president as well