"I am the one who will crush the Qing utterly. With the power of sun and moon I will smash through the boundaries of Helanshan pass. With fire and fury I shall come to the city of the Nanluo kings, and the might of the Yanhuang will rise again."
Tridemism, more commonly referred to by its full name The Three Principles of the People, is a civically neutral (later moderately authoritarian but civically variable in modern day), economically variable (depending on time period and faction) ideology inhabiting a moderate position in between the 2 authoritarian quadrants (in its later stage). It is a Chinese ideology which was developed by Sun Yat-sen, meant to bring power and prosperity to China. It is based on three principles, those being Minzu, Minquan and Minsheng, also being the constitutional ideology of the Republic of China (Taiwan)..
History and Variants
Tridemism, or the Three Principles of The People, was a nationalist and republican ideology developed by Chinese revolutionary Sun Zhongshan (Sun Yat-sen) during the Xinhai (Tsinghai) Revolution, and was the theory on which the Guomindang (Kuomintang - Chinese Nationalist Party) was based. Under these principles, Sun, the temporary president of the new revolutionary state, ruled the Republic of China, the successor of the last imperial Chinese dynasty of Qing. It was designed to make China a free, happy, and prosperous nation.
The Tongmenghui was established in the US as a secret revolutionary society to overthrow Qing’s rule, expel the Manchus, restore China, establish a democratic republic, and give everyone the land they deserved. The Xinhai Revolution successfully overthrew the Qing Dynasty and established China’s first-ever democratic constitution with full civil rights and democracy. The revolution was, however, short-lived due to the failure of the successor of the Tongmenghui-the Chinese Revolutionary Party to advance north and factionalism. Sun had to resign as the President of the newly established Republic of China and go into exile, which paved the way for the rise of the opportunist Yuan Shikai and his reactionary Beiyang Clique. Yuan Shikai established a de facto absolute monarchy with Chinese theocracy and reactionary social and cultural policies.
Sun suffered several defeats after the Xinhai Revolution as reactionary warlords such as Yuan Shikai and Zhang Zuolin obstructed the democratic and progressive reforms of Sun by all possible means in the aftermath of the revolution. Sun was powerless and upset with the development. With the financial support of the USSR, Sun was again able to rise in Canton with his new political party-the Kuomintang (KMT). During the military conquest of the north by the KMT and the development of the Huangpu Military Academy, Sun developed the idea of a political tutelage of the KMT to transform China into a modern democratic constitutional country without giving a specific timeframe to end the one-party state tutelage eventually.
But Sun also proposed a democratic constitution of five separations of powers, the first-ever in Chinese history. The constitution is based on a hybrid system with a mixture of Montesquieu’s three separation of powers of the executive, legislative, and judiciary, and two enlightened traditional Chinese institutions. The Examination Yuan is based on the Chinese traditional examination system and the Control Yuan supervisory body of the ‘Board of Public Censors' in Chinese dynasties of advisors giving Chinese emperors counsel.
The right KMT was officially formed after the cleansing against communists and communist sympathizers in the KMT in 1927 known as the ‘Shanghai Massacre’, the start of the so-called ‘white terror’. In addition, the white terror's primary targets were those who advocated the Soviet model of government, such as Wang Ming and Mao Tse-tung. Shanghai Massacre and subsequent anti-communist massacres across China killed 40k to 300k civilians, and marked the start of the Chinese Civil War.
The most prominent figures of Right KMT were Chiang Kai-shek, Hu Hanmin and his Western Hills Group (before his imprisonment), and Chiang Ching-kuo. The right KMT took a more anti-communist, socially conservative and authoritarian party line than the original KMT, but it continued Sun’s Georgist economic policies in Taiwan after it was defeated by the communists in Mainland China. It is also very anti-Japanese and Chinese nationalist in general.
Chiang’s government continued Northern Expedition after splitting with the communists in 1925 and unified China under the Nationalist Government in 1928 (Only nominally). A period of prosperity and modernization was experienced in China during the Nanking decade with the modernization of infrastructure and a focus on light industries such as the cotton industry, airlines, highways, and factories. China also had increased education, with schools built nationwide under nationalist rule. However, the achievement was somewhat limited as the nationalists only had limited control over the country, with warlords having de facto control over most parts of China and a raging communist rebellion. Periodical famines continued throughout China. The political tutelage stage was scheduled to end in 1937 with Sun’s ideal of constitutional democracy to be implemented. Still, the process was delayed till the 1940s due to the Sino-Japanese War.
Reactionary practices such as foot-binding, polygamy, and child marriage were strictly prohibited and enforced by the Nationalist government for social progress. But the nationalists under Chiang were worried that westernization could impede and diminish the positive aspects of Chinese traditions, such as gender roles, family values, morals, and ethics. Therefore, the nationalist regime started a New Life Movement that promotes Confucianism and traditional Chinese values. Many scholars have described this movement as Neo-Confucianist. Chiang also turned further nationalistic and grew interested in the government systems of Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy, and Kemalist Turkey. The Chinese Blue Shirt Society was founded in 1932 by Dai Li as an experiment that modeled the Black Shirts paramilitary wing of the Italian Fascist Party with a slogan of ‘One Doctrine, One Party, and One Leader’ with strong anti-Japanese and anti-western/American sentiments. The organization was disbanded in 1938 as Chiang moved away from fascist influence due to the deterioration of the relationship between China and the Axis due to Japanese invasion of China.
The Japanese invasion was reliving for the communists strategically as the second United Front was formed between the nationalists and the communists. During the Second Sino-Japanese War, major battles were fought between the nationalists and the Japanese, with 3.8 million-10 million Chinese soldiers perishing or injured to defend China from Japan’s genocidal fascist regime. The Japanese side also suffered heavy losses, with 2.2 million casualties from the Japanese invasion forces and 1 million from the collaborators. The international community only diplomatically condemned Japan and gave China minimum financial support until the US entered the war in 1941; the nationalists caused the Yellow River Flooding to stop the Japanese military advance. This flooding caused the deaths of 400k to 900k civilians. Combined with food shortages, the Yellow River Flood caused the Henan Famine.
China’s post-war partial transition towards democracy in 1947 followed the global wave of democratic changes in previously non-aligned authoritarian countries such as Turkey, Brazil, and Greece, further shifting the KMT’s ideology from fascist-alike fervent nationalism back to Sun’s democratic socialism (at least economically) with the crackdown of capitalists in Shanghai, price controls, monetary reforms, and an expansion of workers rights. However, the nationalists failed to control hyperinflation due to war shortages, corruption and the lack of foreign economic support, which caused the economic collapse of the nationalist-ruled regions.
After the KMT retreated to Taiwan, its ideology shifted to Pro-American authoritarian capitalism, along with many dictatorial regimes such as Francoist Spain, Ilminist Korea, and Kenan Evren’s Turkey. However, Sun’s principle of Georgism was still preserved by the nationalists. Land reform was successfully implemented in Taiwan. Along with state planning policies of technocrats such as Yen Chia-kan, and Chiang Ching-Kuo's Soviet-inspired planning policies, the Gini index of Taiwan was brought down from 0.52 in the Japanese colonial era to just 0.28 during the nationalist rule, and the lower 40% income group doubled their income share to 22% of total income with the income share of the upper 20% shrunk from 61% to 39%. Taiwan also experienced a period of prosperity and rapid growth that topped in Asian four tigers, albeit with the most egalitarian developmental model due to the socialist ideology of Kuomintang.
After retreating to Taiwan, Chiang learned from his mistakes and failures in the mainland and blamed them for failing to pursue Sun Yat-sen’s ideals of Tridemism and welfarism. Chiang’s land reform more than doubled the land ownership of Taiwanese farmers. It removed the rent burdens on them, with former land owners using the government compensation to become the new capitalist class. He promoted a mixed economy of state and private ownership with economic planning. Chiang also promoted a 9-years free education and the importance of science in Taiwanese education and values. These measures generated great success with consistent and strong growth and the stabilization of inflation.
Before the fall of Mainland China into communist hands, the nationalists drafted a new constitution with independent democrats and opposition parties such as CDSP (China Democratic Socialist Party) and Youth China Party. A comprehensive constitutional draft of civil rights, minority rights, and women’s rights based on Sun’s Five-Power separation proposal was established.
Most of the provisions were, however, suspended in Taiwan with martial law declared as the nationalists saw Taiwan as a temporary base to retake Mainland China. The nationalists became more brutal and dictatorial in Taiwan than in Mainland China. The nationalist regime increased press censorship and control over civil activities to counter communist infiltration, and the police state was also expanded. A notorious incident was the 228 Incident with atrocities committed by the nationalist government, although the Fujian Governor Chen Yi responsible for this incident was later executed for committing the atrocities after the nationalists retreated to Taiwan. However, some provisions of the constitution, such as local elections, women’s rights, and parliamentary quotas, were upheld by the nationalist regime despite the martial law in place.
After the death of Chiang Kai-shek in Taiwan, the Chinese nationalist KMT regime began to relax its political restrictions and to improve its civil rights and freedoms under the reforms of Chiang Ching-kuo. In 1986, the Democratic Progressive Party was formed as a real opposition party, which Chiang Ching-kuo did not try to shut down.
After the democratization of Taiwan, it began to slowly drift away from the Chiangist economic policy to embrace a more free market system, as part of the economic globalization process under the context of Neoliberalism.
Since the 1992 Consensus, KMT in Taiwan no longer adheres to many original principles of Tridemism due to the structural reforms of the party implemented by Lee Teng-hui, as they no longer believe in Georgism. This might be the reason why the rent in Taiwan is very high.
There are claims (usually by the Pan-Green) that modern KMT supports the CCP, with the former claiming to support Hong Kong democracy protests and Taiwan's friendly relationship with the USA, but in actuality, they do nothing except Chiang Wan-an (search his Chinese Wikipedia).
When it comes to economics, they're more aligned with the DPP, as both lean neoliberal and laissez-faire capitalist economics, although the KMT tends to be more statist and socially oriented. Revisionaries are now more focused on economic growth rather than equality.
Overall, their policies are inconsistent and constantly changing.
After the end of World War II, the relationship between the Chinese Kuomintang and the CPC, who had allied to fight the Japanese, became increasingly tense; ultimately, both sides restarted the civil war, which World War II had interrupted.
In 1945 and 1946, members of the Kuomintang's left-wing formed the Three People's Confederation of Comrades and the China Nationalist Democratic Promotion Association in Chongqing and Guangzhou, respectively.
In November 1947, the first joint representative meeting of the Kuomintang left was held in Hong Kong; on 1 January 1948, the meeting announced the official establishment of the "Chinese Kuomintang Revolutionary Committee" (中國國民黨革命委員會), and nominated Soong Ching-ling, the widow of Sun Yat-sen, as the Honorary Chairman of the Revolutionary Committee (despite Soong Ching-ling never formally joining the commission).
To this day, it remains as one of PRC's eight "Democratic Parties" (民主黨派) and despite having seats in People's Assembly, it barely has any actual political power and often mocked as nothing but a decoration to maintain PRC's claim that they're a multi-party system and is running under a certain form of consociationalism.
Liberal Tridemism is an ideology that mixes Tridemism (Mainly Original Tridemism and Right-KMT). It strongly opposes Dengism and the PRC, and supports liberal democracy, human rights, and civil liberties. Examples are Xin Haonian, the banned Union of Chinese Nationalists in Mainland China, and Hong Kong Pro-KMT Camp.
However, this ideology has drawn some controversies within the pan-Chinese liberal circles due to its support and defense of Chiang Kai-shek and his authoritarian Nationalist government on many occasions.
Although in its early stage, the society's most important members came from the Whampoa Military Academy and constituted elements of the KMT's Whampoa Clique, by the 1930s, its influence extended into the military and political spheres. It has influenced China's economy and society. The rise and fall of the Blue Shirt Society were rapid but obscure. They were seldom mentioned again by either the KMT or the Communist Party of China after the establishment of the People's Republic of China and the following KMT's retreat to Taiwan.
After Dai Li’s death and the defeat of the nationalists in the Chinese civil war, a few surviving members of the Blue Shirts Society fled to Taiwan. The remanent of the Blue Shirts Society became the hardliners of the KMT and were the most vocal opponents of Chiang Ching-kuo’s democratization reforms.
In recent years, Xi-era China and its pinkie fans have been accused of being fascist, implying followers of Blueshirtism persisted on the mainland and infiltrated the CCP.
民族 Mínzú (Nationalism)
Roughly translates to Civic Nationalism, this principle states that China must be independent from all Imperialist influence and oppression, which can be achieved by developing "China-nationalism" as opposed to ethnic nationalism, uniting Han, Manchus, Mongols and Tibetans, as well as Muslims in China (although this part is arguable since in practice its usually Han hegemony because Sun Yat-sen promoted the idea of Chinese minorities gradually assimilating into the Han culture within the Chinese national framework)
民權 Mínquán (Democracy)
Roughly translates to Civil Rights, this principle stated that instead of having an Emperor to rule China, all Chinese people should be his own Emperor under a democratic system, which citizens have the right to vote and influence politic via democratic means. It also added two more branches--Control Yuan and Examination Yuan -- to more commonly adapted tripartite of power separation due to China's political tradition.
民生 Mínshēng (Socialism)
Roughly translates to "Doctrine of Livelihood", or Socialism more broadly. While Sun Yat-sen stated in a 1924 speech that "Mínshēngism" is Socialism." and even at times calls his proposed policies Communist, he was opposed to the Marxist definitions of "class struggle" and "surplus value" as well as Russian style communism, saying "The Soviet system in Russia is not pure communism but Marxism — and Marxism is not communism; the real communism comes from Proudhon and Bakunin."
Sun Yat-sen instead defined Mínshēng as a doctrine of "people's livelihood, social existence, national economy, and group life." (ibid)In practice it mostly focused on land distribution and monopoly issues, observing that:
We [the Chinese] are making Shanghai the industrial and commercial metropolis of Central China, and Canton the center of South China; and as a result, land values in Shanghai and Canton have multiplied tens of thousands of times within a few decades. (...) We have condemned merchants and manufacturers for their unfair means of profit-making through monopoly, but the landowners, unlike the merchants and manufacturers who have to work hard, receive tremendous profit by doing nothing. Only through the hard labor and constant effort of the mass of people can an area be developed and improved. A general rise in prices always follows a rise of land values, and in this way, the landowners sit down to enjoy the fruits of others' labor. In other words, the earnings of the mass of the people from their improvement of an area are indirectly stolen by the landowners.(ibid)
Sun Yat-sen proposed to solve this with a land value tax, inspired by Henry George:
In as much as the economic progress is the labor of the people in general, it is only just that any increment in land value from such progress be shared by all in the community.(ibid)
How to Draw
[!] Social media platforms in China banned the usage of the Flag of Kuomintang. Be aware when using this design!
This flag of Tridemism is based on the "Blue Sky and White Sun flag" (青天白日旗), which is the official party flag of the Chinese Nationalist Party (Kuomintang) and the naval jack of the Republic of China Navy.
- Draw a triangle,
- Fill it with blue,
- Draw a white circle in the middle,
- Draw 12 sunrays in white along the outside of it,
- Add the eyes
You are done!
|Blue||#000095||0, 0, 149|
|White||#FFFFFF||255, 255, 255|
Five Races design
- Draw a triangle
- Add five equal horizontal stripes going across, colored red, yellow, blue, white, and black
- Draw two eyes on the triangle
You are finished!
|Red||#DE2119||222, 33, 25|
|Yellow||#FFC500||255, 197, 0|
|Blue||#08639C||8, 99, 156|
|White||#FFFFFF||255, 255, 255|
|Black||#141414||20, 20, 20|
Personality and Behavior
There are few types of Tridemism, every type of Tridemism has different personality.
Original Tridemism is a Lolicon.
Left-Wing Tridemism praises Chairman Mao and Chairman Xi (Only Revisionist Left-Wing).
Orthodox Right-Wing Tridemism denies the White Terror or think it was justified.
Revisionist Right-Wing Tridemism is friendly to Dengism, and even shares an ice cream with him.
Liberal Tridemism accuses Revisionist Tridemism of being a traitor.
P.S. This is not meant to be taken seriously.
As Tridemism was separated with both left-wing factions (Especially the Revolutionary Committee of the Chinese Kuomintang - RCCK) and right-wing factions, Tridemism's relationship between several ideologies was mixed due to factional differences.
- 喬治主義 - Your idea of a land value tax is the backbone of my economic system.
- 基馬爾主義 - We both arose from similar conditions in our home countries, and we both believe in populism and a social economy, but differ on how it's funded. You were also my role model of revolution and national salvation to study from. 
- 基督教社會主義 - Dr. Sun Yat-sen was a devout Christian and a socialist.
But still, religion and the state should be separate.
- 威權民主制 & 社會威權主義 - Only the political tutelage of the KMT can lead this nation towards the glorious path of modernization and constitutionalism.
- 女權主義 - If this is how our country can be modernized, I'm all for it I guess. Also rest in power, comrade Qiu Jin.
- 福利主義 - Welfare for my people!
- 休伊朗主義 - This American has some good ideas.
- 列寧主義 - Thanks for helping me reform my party and found Whampoa Military Academy.
- 毛澤東思想 ( Left-Wing KMT & RCCK) - Good chap Mao! Wish Chiang didn't ruin everything!
- 中國特色社會主義 ( Revisionist Left-Wing KMT) - Thanks for keeping me to make China looks like a democracy.
- 遺囑統治 - 恭讀《國父遺囑》！
- 保守社會主義 - The CDSP was epic and it helped to write my constitution. Yan Xishan is also kinda based.
- 猶太復國主義 - I support the Jewish cause!
- 進步保守主義 - Learning west, but don't forget ourselves.
- 德先生 & 賽先生 - 德先生，賽先生，你好。
- 光明會主義 - Uhhhhh... hi, fellow... triangle.
- 民族主義 - 中華民族團結起來—— 慢著，您説台灣、
蒙古、新疆及西藏非中華民族是什麽意思？(ALL CHINESE UNITE!!!! ---- wait, what do you mean Taiwanese, Mongols, Uyghurs and Tibetan are not Chinese?)
- 聯邦主義 - Thanks for the support in overthrowing Qing, but sorry, your ideal was just encouraging those warlords. What China needs is unity under my- erm, I mean, one banner!
- 資本主義 - FILTHY MERCHANTS! YOU EXPLOIT THE PEOPLE! .....then again, it wouldn't be possible for the revolution to succeed without all the investments from Chinese merchants that support my ideal. I initially cracked down the capitalists in Shanghai and China but then let them flourish during the 1930s Nanjing Decade, only to nationalize and attack them again in the 1940s. I became fully supportive of him after I retreat to Taiwan, though,
- 中國特色社會主義 ( Revisionist Right KMT) - Stop saying I'm now his pet! I'm just pro-Chinese unity! 感謝您的支持，我們絕對不讓這些塔綠班勝選!
- 保守自由主義 - Just shut up already and keep up with me Hu Shih!!
- 新保守主義 - Thanks for your aid and support but why do you always backstab me?
- 傳統主義 - The positive aspects of Chinese traditions shall be conserved, although the negative aspects such as monarchism and disrespect of women will be replaced with western progressive ideals. However, the Chinese nation and its culture would always be on top of foreign cultures and civilizations.
- 福利沙文主义 - You take it too far, but Dai Li likes you.
- 國際主義 - I agree the whole world is a family, but the Chinese nation must come first.
- 中華神權統治 and 反動主義 - THE ENEMIES OF THE PEOPLE! YOU MUST BE SNUFFED OUT FOR CHINA TO SUCCEED!
But thanks for the ideas for the Examination Yuan and the Control Yuan
- 袁世凱思想 - My mortal enemy, you are a reactionary warlord opportunist who ruined Xinhai Revolution and turned China into a kleptocratic autocracy. You are the reason why China descended the Warlord Era, and I had to launch several revolutions to retake it. I f*cking hate you!
- 分離主義 - REEEE warlords! Don't you realize China is supposed to be united?! Also, stop encouraging those Taiwan independence movements! How are we going to retake the mainland if I lose my final base?!
Well I'll have Kinmen and Matsu then
- 台獨份子 - Pan-green cucks! 1450水軍！塔綠班！綠色恐怖！Taiwanese are Chinese!
None of you will be able to escape after China is unified!
- 日本帝國主義 & 日本國 - RAPIST MURDERING C*NT. YOU WANT A
THIRDFOURTH NUCLEAR EXPLOSION ON YOUR CLAY? #NeverForgetNanjing
- 溥儀 - The Qing dynasty has shown itself to be full of traitors and weebs. I should have killed you back in 1912.
- 毛澤東思想 (Except for Left-Wing KMT & RCCK that supports Mao) - YOU KILLED AT LEAST 40 MILLION PEOPLE! MY PEOPLE! PREPARE TO BE ELIMINATED. Also, Without the Nationalist Party, there would be no New China.
- 中國特色社會主義 ( Right-Wing KMT) - Haha Three Noes campaign go brrrrrr.
- 中國特色社會主義 & Xi Jinping Thought ( Liberal Tridemism) - DEATH TO CHINAZIS WHO STOLE OUR FATHERLAND!!!
- 族裔民族主義 - I enacted a quota system for ethnic minorities such as Tibetans and Uyghurs and later Indigenous Taiwanese as part of my educational policy.
- 霍查主義 (Except for Left-Wing KMT & RCCK) - You kicked me out from the UN!
- Harry S. Truman - I hate you because your illusions about the CCP caused us to lose all of China!
It is definitely not caused by us losing the support of the people because we are too corrupt!
Original image (KMT)
Original image (ROC 5 color)
ROC 5 color
Blue Shirts Society/Chinese Blueshirtism
Blue Shirts Society/Chinese Blueshirtism
Flag of Chinese Blueshirtism
Artowrok and Comics
"9x9 Character Compass"
- The Three Principles of the People (1924) by Sun Yat-Sen
- The Generalissimo: Chiang Kai-Shek and the Struggle for Modern China by Jay Taylor
- The Generalissimo's Son: Chiang Ching-Kuo and the Revolutions in China and Taiwan by Jay Taylor
- Three Principles of the People
- Hu Hanmin Thought
- Revive China Society
- Revolutionary Committee of the Chinese Kuomintang (RCCK)
- Taiwanese People's Party
- Pro-KMT camp
- Union of Chinese Nationalists
- Socialist ideology of the KMT
- Malaysian Chinese Association
- People's Power Party
- Chinese People's Party
- Sun Yat-Sen's Three Principles of the People by EmperorTigerstar
- Extra History: Sun Yat-sen by Extra Credits
- The Rise and Fall of the Vietnamese Nationalist Party by zwee
- There is a common joke among the Taiwanese ACG community suggesting that Sun Yat-Sen was a lolicon due to his previous marriages involving underage girls (Kaoru Otsuki, aged 13 when proposed; Haru Asada, aged 15 when being Dr. Sun's concubine; and Soong Ching-ling, via grooming).
- Sun rejected Individualism of the West in favor of Chinese communitarian-nationalism.
- Sun clamed to be a socialist and rejected Marxism, yet despite this he chose Lenin's style of party structure for the KMT.
- One of Sun's policy changes was a transition from theocracy to a modernized secular constitutional republic.
- Initially, Chiang Kai-Shek was a Marxist who researched several works of Karl Marx and held left-leaning views, until he began to be skeptical towards the KMT-CCP co-operation after the Canton Coup.
- *Aka "White Terror"
- Chiang Ching-kuo was deeply influenced by economic ideas of the USSR due to his Soviet education despite being a staunch anti-communist.
- Chiang Wei-shui has sometimes been described as the "Taiwanese Sun Yat-sen" and is greatly respected by the Taiwanese across party lines.
- Several historians, including Paul Jackson and Cyprian Balmires, have classified the Blue Shirt Society as a ‘fascistic’ ultra-nationalist group rather than a ‘fascist’ one, implying an orientation towards, but not complete integration into, fascism.
- Lee Teng is a Taiwanese who grew up during the Japanese occupation period and was once frighted for IJA, he later joined KMT, became its Chairman and president of ROC after the death of Chiang Ching-kuo. Later in life he turned to support the Taiwan independence movement. After some failed attempts to change KMT from a Chinese nationalistic party to a Taiwanese one, he left the KMT in 2001.
- Hung Hsiu-chu supports the CCP, importantly denying the Xinjiang police files.
- He was a police before, not a real Police Statist.
- Xin was Born in 1947 and experienced the tyrannical era of Mao. He strongly opposes the CCP and supported Tiananmen Students.
- Chiang Wan-an has show support for Gay rights and the Hong Kong protesters.
- Wang Zhongquan created the Chinese People's Party after alleging the KMT in engaging political corruption.
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- "Socialist ideology of the Kuomintang#Chiang Kai Shek", Wikipedia.
- , Wikipedia.
- , Journals.open.nl
- "Spymaster Dai Li and the Chinese Secret Service" by Frederic Wakeman Jr., Amazon.com.
- , Wikipedia (Chinese).
- , Google Books.
- Law - All, MOJ.gov.tv.
- , CUHK.hk.
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- "Interactions between two republics: The Republic of Turkey and the Republic of China (1923-1949)", Briq Journal.
- "China's century old support for Zionism surfaces in a latter, TimesOfIsrael.
- "Xi congratulates new KMT leader, but calls Taiwan situation grim.", Nikkei.
- 特種身分學生成績優待, Wikipedia (Chinese)