Separatism, also commonly known as Secessionism, is a form of Nationalism that seeks to establish a nation, country, sovereign state, or government that is separate from an already existing nation and exists to serve as the nation, country, government or sovereign state of a specific group. It is an incredibly broad ideology that believes that minority groups in a society are at risk of losing identity. Groups such as linguistic, ethnic, cultural, religious, tribal, racial, ethnolinguistic, gender, and even political groups concentrated in an area that is controlled by an 'oppressive' nation, whose governance or majority populace is not belonging to the minority group of the area, should be separated, the land containing the minority should be able to have their own nation. This is the principle of self-determination that Separatism vehemently supports.
Separatism has, in theory, existed for as long as civilization. Independence movements and separatist revolts have been around since the dawn of humanity. The most notable separatist movement was the American Revolution from 1775-1783 as it marked the first time a European colony successfully separated from it's master, starting the Age of Revolution.
Two decades before the American Revolution started, another somewhat successful separatist movement happened in 1755 in the form of the Corsican Republic, which declared independence from the Republic of Genoa. It lasted until 1769 when France invaded and annexed it.
In 1860, South Carolina declared indepedence from the United States. Several other states did the same in 1861. These separatists formed the Confederate States of America. This large separatist attempt in North America was crushed a few years later in 1865.
From 1917-1922, in the aftermath of World War I, many separatist movements and revolutions happened across Europe. Some of these included Finland, Poland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania (all separated from Russia), Yugoslavia (separated from Austria-Hungary), Bavaria (separated from Germany but rejoined), and many others. A lot of these had their roots in Ethnonationalism, Cultural Nationalism, and Socialism.
Simultaniously, from 1917 to 1918, Ukraine People's Republic, Belarus People's Republic, Crimea, Central Asian nations and Caucasian nations have proclaimed their independence from Russian Empire as well, but their attempts were crushed by Russian SFSR, forming the Soviet Union in 1922.
In 1991, the Soviet Union collapsed. This was do to Nationalism and Separatism. In the aftermath of the collapse, many new countries separated and became independent. But, separatists tried to separate from the newly created countries, causing chaos in regions like Abkhazia and South Ossetia in Georgia, Nagorno-Karabakh in Azerbaijan, Transnistria and Gagauzia in Moldova, Chechnya and Dagestan in Russia for many years to come.
In 2014, Separatism caused a war in Ukraine. It started with the annexation of Crimea by Russia, but then spread to the Donbass region with the "proclamation" of the so-called Donetsk and Luhansk "People's Republics". There were attempts to create similar things in Kharkiv and Odesa, but they were crushed. Despite countless evidence of Russian military fighting on the separatist side, Russian officials deny their involvement in the war until a full-scale invasion occurred in 2022 following Russian recognition of both Regions. Currently apart from the Donetsk and Luhansk People's Republics parts of Kherson Zaporizhian oblasts were formally absorbed into Russia after a rigged referendum.
In 2017 and 2018, the 'Unite the Right Rally' and 'Unite the Right Rally 2' occurred. These were mainly by White Nationalists and Neo-Nazis, but also included Neo-Confederate separatists.
Assyrian nationalism is an ongoing secessionist movement that has been active since the 19th century as a form of indigenous nationalism. As they are descendants of the Assyrian empire that ruled over part of the Middle East from the 25th century BC to the 7th century BC. The Assyrian homeland is mostly based in northwestern Iraq, but also may include northeastern Syria, northwestern Iran, and southeastern Turkey.
While being a form of Pan-Nationalism (see: Pan-Nationalism#Berberism), Berberism is also separatist as Berbers have no sovereign state and must separate from another entity to get it. Berberism has been primarily adopted by Tuaregs who have revolted in Libya (Second Libyan Civil War) and Mali (Mali War). Berberism has also been the reason for the creation of entities like Azawad.
Berlin Secession was a historical separatist ideology in Berlin from 1898-1913. It was an art movement created in 1898 within the German Empire by Berliners in response to art restrictions placed by Kaiser Wilhem II. The restrictions were removed by the Kaiser in 1913, causing the demands for an independent Berlin to die out.
English Nationalism, also known as English Democratism, refers to the separatist movement in England that wants to make England a separate country than the United Kingdom. English Nationalism can also be described as Irredentist in regards of some Welsh counties that the English Democrats seek to give to England.
While having some relations to Berberism (because Kabyle are a Berber ethnic group), Kabyle Nationalism is a separatist political ideology that seeks for the Kabyle people to separate from Algeria and form their own nation called Kabylia.
Euroscepticism is a political position involving criticism of the European Union (EU) and European integration. It ranges from those who oppose some EU institutions and policies, and seek reform (Eurorealism, Eurocritical, or soft Euroscepticism), to those who oppose EU membership and see the EU as unreformable (anti-European Unionism, anti-EUism, or hard Euroscepticism).
The main drivers of Euroscepticism have been beliefs that integration undermines national sovereignty and the nation state,that the EU is elitist and lacks democratic legitimacy and transparency, that it is too bureaucratic and wasteful, that it encourages high levels of immigration, or perceptions that it is a neoliberal organisation serving the big business elite at the expense of the working class, being responsible for austerity and driving privatization.
Hard Euroscepticism is a political movement that opposes EU membership. It believes that the EU undermines national independence and is undemocratic. The main difference from Soft Euroscepticism is that Hard Euroscepticism believes that the EU cannot be reformed due to the fact that the Treaty of Rome (which created the EEC, the precursor to the EU) can only be amended by a unanimous decision from all member countries, which they believe impossible. Advocating for leaving the EU is often associated with right-wing/far-right politics, though it's also a position taken by many leftist politicians. Some notable hard Eurosceptic parties include the Brexit Party, the UK Independence Party, Alternative for Germany, and the National Rally.
Neo-Bourbonism (Italian: Neoborbonismo) is a form of nostalgia for the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. The term was coined in 1960 was born with the creation of the autonomist movements in Italy and underwent a considerable surge in popularity in the years around 2011, coinciding with the celebrations of the 150th anniversary of the Unification of Italy. The Neo-Bourbonist movement is supported by small political movements, amateur websites and prolific pseudo-historical publications, leading the Italian newspaper Corriere del Mezzogiorno to speak of "neo-Bourbon revanchism, in vogue in recent years, ...".
The Cape independence Party (abbreviated as CAPEXIT) is a independentist South African party that wants to create the Cape Republic fully within the borders of Western Cape, but also within parts of Northern Cape and Eastern Cape provinces. Its political program has three main tenets: Cantonal political system, semi-direct democratic electoral system and the economic system of Singapore. Other policies include: strong borders, stricter immigration policy and death penalty for murders and rapists.
After Martial Times, Taiwanese Nationalism rose up.
Personality and Behavior
Separatism is portrayed as patriotic and overzealous, but towards the nation that they believe should separate, not the nation that currently controls his land. They are quick to criticize anyone who suggests that their land is a part of another nation or that they citizens are citizens of a 'foreign' country. For example, they display a behavior akin to what Québécois nationalists would do if someone called them Canadian, or what a Catalan nationalist would do if someone called them Spanish, or if someone suggested that Québec was simply a province of Canada or if someone called Catalonia a region of Spain. Or even if someone said Kosovo is Serbia or said that Kosovars are Serbian. Separatism would become extremely aggravated in such scenarios.
Other than that, they get along with ideologies that want to form separate nations for their groups. This ideology often discusses self-determination and how it is a human right.
How to Draw
- Draw a ball.
- The ball will be split vertically into two hemispheres/sides.
- One will have a flag facing away from the center and the same style as Nationalism.
- The other side should have the same flag facing away from the center, but with the colors of Nationalism swapped, having an orange flag on black.
- The flag poles should touch the bottom of the ball, and notably be separate from each other.
- Add the eyes and you're done!
|Orange||#FF9800||255, 152, 0|
|Black||#141414||20, 20, 20|
- Populism - For OUR people!
- Independence Anarchism - Basically me as an anarchist. Which is BASED!
- Post-Colonial Anarchism - Basically the same as above but with a focus on anti-colonialism and fighting racism. BASED!
- National Anarchism - Eh, you don't focus very much on the important stuff, like independence for every group, but at least you want it. But yeesh, all you anarchists should stop telling independent people groups how to run their own nation, let them forge their own path! (Independence anarchism and Post-Colonial anarchism are still better though.)
- Ethnopluralism - Finally! A nation state for every ethnicity, this guy gets it.
- Indigenism and Indigenous Anarchism - It's time that indigenous groups get their independence! True self-determination comes from not being under a foreign majority.
- Alter-Globalism - Most based globalist I have ever seen. Supports oppressed groups for self-determination and protecting their culture while also supporting each other via mutual aid.
- Democratic Confederalism - Kurdistani freedom fighters!
- Southern Separatism - May you Rise Again!
- Black Nationalism - The Republic of New Afrika was super based, death to AmeriKKKa!
- Anarcho-Syndicalism - Good job at liberating Catalonia!
- African Socialism - Good job in kicking out the colonialist invaders!
- Buddhist Theocracy, Buddhist Socialism & Buddhist Anarchism - FREE TIBET! CHINA OUT!
- Hong Kong Localists - FREE HONG KONG!
- Uyghur Separatism - Keep Xi Jinping out of Xinjiang!
- Irish Republicanism - Tiocfaidh ár lá!
- Anarcho-Capitalism - a fan of my work, he usually advocates for me.
- Patchwork - You are what I dream of, absolute heaven on earth!
- Libertarian Monarchism - Liechtenstein and Hans-Adam II are absolutely based.
- Dawronoye - !ܬܐܝܗ ܕܘܪܢܝܐ
- Neoreactionaryism - Patchwork is a great idea
- Hoppeanism - I too, dream of a Europe that consists of 1,000 Liechtensteins
- Sikh Theocracy - FREE KHALISTAN!
- Nationalism - Stop trying to assimilate minorities and make sure groups stay separate! We need every group to be of utmost importance to their own nation, but not trample over others so they can have their own self-determination too.
- File:YAP(Azerbaijan).png Aliyevism - My Armenian variants really hate you however the Iranian variants see you as a great alternative after they leave from Iran.
- Globalism - Stop it with all that unity stuff, nations should be separating and getting independence! Although... sometimes we might need economic and military help across the world to do it.
- Cosmopolitanism - You're right in some ways, we should have no group ruling over other minorities. And we should acknowledge each nationality's equal right to have their own nation. But Pan-Nationalism is the worst! I will respect other nationalities from afar, not meld with them!
- Progressivism - Well, supporting minority groups is based, but the only right that matters is their right to form their nation and have independence! Other than that, don't tell our new independent nations how to behave, they don't need to be progressive, they'll use self-determination to forge their own path.
- Traditionalism - Protecting my peoples traditions are a good idea, but why can we not work with other independence activists of other lands if they support our fight for self-determination?
- Tridemism - Well I do like how you want officially separated from the evil Dengist state, but you also occupied the land of the Taiwanese and want to form "One Big China", and that's... hella cringe.
- Radical Feminism & MGTOW - I mean, I don't know about full on gender separatism but whatever floats your boat, I guess?
- Anarcho-Individualism - The fight for self-determination from the oppressive majority and against assimilating for being different is based. But you might need to sacrifice some of your personal autonomy in order to unite with like-minded individuals to truly be free.
- Anarcho-Collectivism - You see how the power of the collective can get things done when people work together, but you might also force various diverse peoples to integrate or assimilate for furthering the good of the collective rather than for minority groups. Which goes against true self-determination of diverse peoples.
- Religious Nationalism - Both our liberator and our oppressor, forcing faith on other diverse peoples beliefs is wrong. But fighting to protect our faith from said religious fanatics isn't.
- Homofascism - Your supporting of imperialism and racism against minorities is a huge red flag. But a gay-ethnostate was a pretty based idea.
- Pan-Nationalism - Trying to unite nations and countries into less rather than separating them into more is absolutely despicable. Although you might be needed to ensure various diverse minority groups get their self-determination from an oppressive outsider, but still.
- European Federalism - My British, French and Greek variants really hate you however the scottish variants within Britain see you as a good alternative after they have separated from the UK, so I am really really confused.
- Federalism - Autonomy? How about independence already? At least you allow some liberty to the minority groups.
- Interculturalism - I will not assimilate!
- Anationalism - C'mon, why do you gotta give anarchists a bad name? You are THE WORST of the anarchists.
- Irredentism - One of my arch-nemesis, tries to reverse my progress of getting people independence! Stop conquering those poor minorities, they deserve their homeland too!
- Imperialism - Extremely glad that you're era of rule is over, this should never even be thought of! Subjugating those poor minorities is the opposite of giving them freedom to have their own nation!
What I helped you get into power NOOOOOOOOOO!!!
- Jingoism - Now this is just sick, you've gotta respect people's right to self-determination, to each nation, their own!
- Ultranationalism - Wanting independence, being proud of your nation and sharing its identity is good nationalism, but you want your national group to trample over all the others, not cool, the worst nationalism.
- Dengism - You are everything that I despise. Your Red-White terror in Tibet, Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia, Manchuria, and NK will end!
- World Federalism - This is what I fight against! One world government is a literal hell on earth.
- Illuminatism - This is where a one world government inevitably leads us!
- Hive-Mind Collectivism - I thought He was my greatest fear... Guess I was wrong. Now excuse me while I have a panic attack.
- Titoism - Balkanization go brrrrr.
- Zionism - One day, I'll kick your fucking ass out of Palestine, so Palestinians will live in peace!
- Civic Nationalism - The type of country that you want is idiocy, a country that deteriorates the identities of all people who live there, a country that needs to be torn apart, a country that I would never want to be part of. It's useless that you look at me like that, you don't scare me, libtard. You, at this moment, look like him to me, cuck. And stop calling me a traitor, moron!
- Neo-Ottomanism, Turkish Idealism and Kemalism - #FreeKurdistan!
- Milosevicism - FUCK OFF, KOSOVO IS ALBANIA!
- Autonomism (political doctrine)
- List of active separatist movements
- Partition (politics)
- Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization
- United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories
- Stateless nation
- Oriol Junqueras
- Quim Torra
- Jordi Sànchez
- Jordi Cuixart
- Carme Forcadell
- Arnaldo Otegi
- Xosé Manuel Beiras
- Jean-Guy Talamoni
- Oscar Temaru
- Alfred Marie-Jeanne
- Nicola Sturgeon
- Keith Brown
- Alex Salmond
- Adam Price
- Colum Eastwood
- Yves-François Blanchet
- Paul St-Pierre Plamondon
- Edward Leung
- Chan Ho tin
- Baggio Leung
- Tony Chung
- Anwar Yusuf Turani
- Dolkun Isa
- Jigme Gyatso
- Rubén Berríos
- Louis J. Marinelli
- Michael Hill
- Subcomandante Marcos
- Abdullah Öcalan
- Eugène Terre'Blanche
- Carel Boshoff IV
- Jack Miller
- Israel Kamakawiwoʻole
Examples of separatist movements
- The World’s Leading Independence Movements | Part 1 by James Ker-Lindsay
- The World’s Leading Independence Movements | Part 2 by James Ker-Lindsay
- Lesser-Known Separatist Movements by Neatling
- Lesser-Known Separatist Movements 2 by Neatling
- Lesser-Known Separatist Movements 3 by Neatling
- Which Regions Are Fighting For Independence? by NowThis World
- Which Regions Are Fighting For Independence? Part 2 by NowThis World
- Which Regions Are Fighting For Independence? Part 3 by NowThis World
References and notes
- This is a Taiwanese Joke
- According to certain Neo-Bourbons, the United Kingdom supported the Italian Unification to get rid of the "powerful and threatening" Kingdom of Two Sicilies
- Many Neo-Bourbons are sympathizers or even supporters of the post-1861 Brigandage in Southern Italy
- The movement is mostly supported by pseudo-historic myths and theories
- Many Neo-Bourbons argue that the Kingdom of Two Sicilies was one of the most advanced and developed countries in Europe at the time.
- Medieval Northumbria included parts of southern Scotland, including Edinburgh. NIP does claim the High Peak District of Derbyshire and has welcomed other parts of the UK to join Northumbria if they wish. Some also wish for Northumbria to be annexed by an Independent Scotland.
- "Givi" was an ethnic Georgian