Authoritarian Capitalism

From Polcompball Wiki
Jump to navigationJump to search

"I am not interested in ratings by Freedom House or whatever. At the end of the day, is Singapore society better or worse off?"

Authoritarian Capitalism (AuthCap), is an economically right wing, authoritarian, and culturally ambivalent ideology advocating for a system in which a capitalist market economy exists alongside an authoritarian government. Authoritarian capitalists argue that by utilizing elements of Capitalism, regimes may more effectively employ modern technologies to suppress dissidence towards government. In addition, it is argued that capitalist free-market policies leads to an increase in authoritarian policies. The core of this argument lies in the view that citizens will support whichever regime provides the most material comforts.
Authoritarian capitalism is often associated with, and mistaken for, State Capitalism, an economic system in which the state undertakes business and commercial economic activity, and where the means of production are organized and managed as state-owned enterprises. The former has a higher degree of economic liberalization than the latter.

History

Cuba

  • Rafael Guas Inclán - Rafael Guas Inclán was president of the Liberal Party of Cuba, former governor of the province of Havana and former vice president during the Fulgencio Batista government. He was a supporter of the Batista government and was elected mayor of Havana, but he did not take over because of the Cuban revolution, taking refuge in Chile. He supported the CIA and wanted to join Brigade 2506 before the Bay of Pigs invasion, but was rejected because of age, however his son died in the fighting. He died in 1975 of natural causes.
  • Manuel Artime - Manuel Artime was a former military man, who originally fought alongside the rebels against Batista, so much so that after the revolution, Artime participated in the National Institute of Agrarian Reform (INRA) and promoted the work of Comandos Rurales, supporting the then regime. The situation changed after the Cuban government began hunting counter-revolutionaries, in which he resigned from INRA and exiled himself with Jesuits in Havana, later going to the US, receiving CIA recruitment and training, closely involved with officer Gerry Droller. He participated in a group with dex officers, both receiving training and assessments on Useppa Island and in Panama, landing in 1961 by Brigade 2506, participating in the failed Invasion of the Bay of Pigs, being captured by the Cuban government in the same year. He was released in 1962, joining President John F. Kennedy in a welcoming ceremony for the brigade's captives. He participated in the counterrevolutionary unit AMWORLD, with attacks on coastal installations in Cuba, but the unit was abolished under Lyndon B. Johnson. Other things involved would be a failed attempt to assassinate Fidel Castro and organized the Miami Watergate scandal.
  • Erneido Oliva - He was a Cuban soldier who graduated from the Artillery Academy in 1955, being an instructor at the Caribbean School of the US Army in panama canal zone between 1958-59. Even with the purge of the military after the Cuban revolution, he was still appointed Inspector General of INRA, but ended up participating in a group that planned a campaign against Castro in 1960, in which he left the army in the same year, which, along with other 40 young people, was trained in Guatemala by the CIA. He became deputy commander of Brigade 2506, participating in the Bay of Pigs invasion at the behest of Pepe San Roman in 1961, but was caught by the Cuban government in 1962 after the Cuban government ransom the three Brigade leaders. Along with Artime and others captured from the brigade, they sided with John F. Kennedy in a welcoming ceremony and developed a good relationship with Attorney Robert F. Kennedy. It was involved with the Cuban Project, led by Manuel Artime, carrying out coastal attacks in Cuba, having its headquarters in Costa Rica and Nicaragua, but ended up being terminated in the LBJ government, after the death of JFK. Even so, he remained anti-Castro after several military appointments, founding the Cuban-American Military Council (CAMCO) to promote cooperation with the anti-Castro Cuban military. In 2008, Oliveira won the Heritage Award, a few years later he was appointed to the Board of Governors of the United States Organizations (USO) by then President George W. Bush. He ended up dying on January 30, 2020 from natural causes.

Singapore

Simplistically, Singapore under the People's Action Party (PAP) is the titular example of authoritarian capitalism, in which it is the country with the most economic freedom in the world according to both the 2023 Economic Freedom of the World report published by the Fraser Institute and the 2023 Index of Economic Freedom co-published by the Heritage Foundation and the Wall Street Journal, but is regarded as a partial democracy. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit, Singapore is a flawed democracy, and Freedom House gives it a score of 48 out of 100 in the Freedom in the World 2024 report.[20]

However, it should be noted that the PAP takes a nominally pragmatic approach to governance, and its policies are often syncretic and ideologically diverse.

Singapore's authoritarian perception follows from its relatively heavy limitations on speech and other liberties. For instance, by virtue of Singapore's multicultural and multiethnic nature, hate speech and other messages considered divisive are punishable by fine under laws such as the Internal Security Act and Maintenance of Religious Harmony Act.[21] It should also be noted that Singaporean elections are fairly conducted, but allegations of PAP-favoring gerrymandering have been made.

Singapore is also notable for stringent drug distribution penalties, with capital punishment used as a deterrent against trafficking illegal substances. Singapore has thus become known pejoratively as the "Disneyland with the death penalty" by Science Fiction writer William Gibson in light of its major socioeconomic success while still administering the death penalty.[22]

  • Lee Kuan Yew - Lee Kuan Yew (1923-2015) was the first Prime Minister of Singapore and is widely considered to be the city state's founding father. Lee was born in Singapore when it was still under British colonial rule as part of the Straits Settlements. During the Japanese Occupation in the midst of WWII, Lee managed to evade execution as Imperial Japan perpetrated the Sook Ching massacres.[23]

The future leader of Singapore got a job with the Japanese propaganda department (Hōdōbu) in late 1943, as an English specialist in order to support his family during the period of Japanese-imposed economic hardship. Because of his experiences through the occupation, Lee Kuan Yew believed that no Empire had the right to rule over Singapore and that its would eventually have to push for independence and self-determination.

After the war and Japan's surrender to the Allied Forces, Lee got a Queen's scholarship and went to study abroad in London where his anti-colonial sentiments kept growing. He returned to Singapore in 1950 together with his wife Kwa, determined to end British colonial rule and create a unified and independent Malaya and Singapore. Lee turned heavily to the Singapore's Chinese-speaking community and trade unions and was willing to cooperate with regional communist movements as he sought to create a popular front.

This coalition between Lee and left-wing groups became the The People's Action Party (PAP) in 1954. However, the communist wings of the PAP were deemed too violent in protesting for Singapore's independence, and Lee removed those elements from the party.

The People's Action Party won its first electoral victory in the 1959 election and Lee Kuan Yew became the independent Singapore's first prime minister. Singapore initially was apart of Malaysia, but ideological differences and Malaysia's pursuit of malay racial preference led to Singapore being ejected from the union in 1965. Lee and the PAP continued to be elected with a supermajority parliamentary control at every election and oversaw Singapore's transformation from a third-world fishing village into a developed high economy country, with a highly effective, anti-corrupt and technocratic government and civil service.

Lee eschewed populist policies in favor long term social and economic planning and did everything he could to attract foreign investment for multinational corporations (MNCs). In particular, Singapore's public education system was developed as a means to develop the human capital of Singapore, incentivising MNCs to establish regional hubs in Singapore due to the skilled workforce. Singapore consistently ranks at the top of the World Bank's "Ease of Doing Business Report."

However, Lee's rule has been described as authoritarian by critics, with accusations of curtailing press freedoms, imposing narrow limits on public protests, and bringing defamation lawsuits against political opponents. But along with this authoritarianism, Singapore has pursued citizen-benefiting policies in what can be described as a hybrid paternalistic conservatism. For instance, despite these liberal economic policies, the PAP has also pursued many welfare policies not typically seen in economies as free as Singapore. For instance, purchasable public housing is subsidised, and many types of financial and social assistance are available to struggling Singaporeans.

tripartite agreements are also a key feature of Singapore's economic strategy and the government of Singapore plays a central role in facilitating dialogue between employees and employers, especially through institutions such as the National Trades Union Congress (NTUC), which represents workers' interests, and the Singapore National Employers Federation (SNEF), representing employers.

In 1990, Lee Kuan Yew stepped down as Prime Minister and was succeeded by Goh Chok Tong, who served for 12 years until Lee Hsien Loong was elected to parliament and became Prime Minister.

  • Lee Hsien Loong : Lee Kuan Yew's eldest son Lee Hsien Loong has served as Prime Minister of Singapore and Secretary-General of the People's Action Party (PAP) since 2004. Although Lee Hsien Loong isn't quite as authoritarian as his father, other political parties still don't stand much of a chance against the PAP come elections. Press Freedom remains low despite Singapore's high human development.[24]


The United States

Main Article: Neoconservatism

W.I.P.

Mexico

W.I.P.

Guatemala

W.I.P.

Venezuela

W.I.P

  • Juan Vicente Gómez was a Military general and the dictator of Venezuela during 1908 until 1935.

Juan Vicente Gómez was born on July 24, 1857. In 1899, he joined the private army of Cipriano Castro, Gómez's friend since Castro's exile to Colombia. This private army swept control of Caracas in the same year and seized control of the country, this event being called the Revolución Liberal Restauradora (Restorative liberal revolution on English.) After the revolution, Castro became Venezuela's president, Gómez being his vice-president, and on 1902, he became the head of the military. In November 1908, Castro abandoned Venezuela due to his health, and leaved Gómez as the provisional president during his absence. On December 19, after rumours of Castro plotting a murder on Gómez, the latter one couped the country and became the president of Venezuela. During his time as the president, he freed political prisoners, did countless reforms to the constitution and implanted ephemeral puppet government to keep him in power, censored the press, but, on the other side, Gómez also gave Venezuela a new name (since Venezuela had a bad reputation on Western due to Castro's conflicts with European countries) created the country's first airline, the Air Force, commissioned constructions for the first airports, and was known as "El Pacificador" (The Pacifier) due to his actions on the Liberating Revolution (not to be confused with the aforesaid Restorative liberal revolution) a civil war perpetrated by other caudillos to topple Castro during 1901 to 1903. Gómez died on December 17, 1935, with 78 years. His mandate lasted 26 (almost 27) years.

Operation Condor

Main Articles: Neoconservatism, Pinochetism, and National Capitalism, and Caudillismo

Operation Condor was an operation between 1968 and 1989 in South America, which took governments from the left and placed capitalist dictatorships. The operation is known for its anti-communism and being an example of "American imperialism". The affected countries were: Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Bolivia, Chile and Paraguay and their supporters were:

  • Luis Posada Carriles - Luis Posada Carriles was an anti-communist militant and terrorist, in which he was responsible for overseeing the capture of Che Guevara. In the condor operation, he was responsible for carrying out terrorist attacks in Cuba and the assassination of Orlando Letelier, the main opponent of the Pinochet government.
  • Jorge Rafael Videla, Alfredo Stroessner, Hugo Banzer - The aforementioned dictators are now very similar, Videla being the cruelest. In these dictatorships, indigenous peoples were persecuted, economic liberalization, support for Nazi refugees and (in Videla's case) persecution of Jews.
  • Emílio Garrastazu Médici - Emílio Garrastazu Médici was a Brazilian dictator who took over after the condor operation. The Medici government is known for economic improvement and Authoritarianism, especially for AI5, a law that allows censorship, restricting civil rights and torture. It also banned pornography.
  • Juan María Bordaberry - Juan María Bordaberry was a Uruguayan dictator who also took over in the condor operation, in the 1973 coup. His system was capitalist and agricultural with inspirations from Fascism and Francoism.
  • Augusto Pinochet - See: Pinochetism.

Peru

Francisco Bermúdez

Francisco Morales Bermúdez was a Peruvian military officer and politician known for overthrowing the leftist socialist-leaning military government of Juan Velasco Alvarado in August 29th 1975. Initially, the new military government claimed to continue the revolutionary process started during the previous government, but in a more moderate way without the excesses commited during Juan Velasco's era, which the new government blamed to the far-left influence, which was proposed to be removed, first by disbanding SINAMOS. However, in early 1976, the government officially abandoned its pro-socialist agenda, and would start counter-reforms with some liberalization of the economy, while still being an authoritarian military dictatorship with a statist Velascoist-like economy. After a nationwide strike organized by the CGTP in 1977, Morales-Bermúdez's military government started a democratic transition process, which was completed in 1980.

Alberto Fujimori

Flag of Fujimorism

Fujirmorism arose in 1989 with the creation of the political party "Cambio 90", created by the Peruvian-Japanese politician Alberto Fujimori. At that time, Peru was suffering an era of serious terrorism by far-left groups, being the main Shining Path, a group which followed an ideology called "Gonzalo Thought", which was an extremely radical fusion of Marxism, Leninism and Maoism.

It is in this climate of terror that Fujimorism easily wins the 1990 general elections against his rival, the neoliberal Mario Vargas Llosa, making Fujimori president of Peru.

During his rule, Fujimorism practically destroyed the terrorist groups using unconventional means (repression, assassinations, death squads), and to remain in power, he decided to carry out a self-coup in 1992, turning Peru into a dictatorship.

By 2000, and due to unpopularity, accusations of corruption, and Fujimori health problems, Fujimorism was forced to leave power. Fujimori's daughter Keiko Fujimori has procured a carrier in Peruvian politics in his steed.

South Korea

Main Article: Ilminism

  • Park Chung-hee was a dictator in South Korea and the 3rd head of state in modern South Korea. In his government, the economy grew substantially, as it hears numerous economic miracles, the best known being the sharp drop in mortality and extreme poverty. He was also extremely authoritarian, banned freedom of expression and politics, sent homeless people to forced labor camps, and replaced Buddhism with Protestantism, banned the Chinese language and implanted nationalism.

Japan

W.I.P

The Philippines

W.I.P.

Russia

Main Articles: Kleptocracy, and Oligarchy

Dmitry Medvedev

Dmitry Medvedev began his official career in 2005, when he was elected deputy prime minister.

In 2007, he was nominated by