Authoritarian Capitalism

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"I am not interested in ratings by Freedom House or whatever. At the end of the day, is Singapore society better or worse off?"

Authoritarian Capitalism (AuthCap), is an economically right wing, authoritarian, and culturally ambivalent ideology advocating for a system in which a capitalist market economy exists alongside an authoritarian government. Authoritarian capitalists argue that by utilizing elements of Capitalism, regimes may more effectively employ modern technologies to suppress dissidence towards government. In addition, it is argued that capitalist free-market policies leads to an increase in authoritarian policies. The core of this argument lies in the view that citizens will support whichever regime provides the most material comforts.
Authoritarian capitalism is often associated with, and mistaken for, State Capitalism, an economic system in which the state undertakes business and commercial economic activity, and where the means of production are organized and managed as state-owned enterprises. The former has a higher degree of economic liberalization than the latter.

History

Cuba

  • Rafael Guas Inclán - Rafael Guas Inclán was president of the Liberal Party of Cuba, former governor of the province of Havana and former vice president during the Fulgencio Batista government. He was a supporter of the Batista government and was elected mayor of Havana, but he did not take over because of the Cuban revolution, taking refuge in Chile. He supported the CIA and wanted to join Brigade 2506 before the Bay of Pigs invasion, but was rejected because of age, however his son died in the fighting. He died in 1975 of natural causes.
  • Manuel Artime - Manuel Artime was a former military man, who originally fought alongside the rebels against Batista, so much so that after the revolution, Artime participated in the National Institute of Agrarian Reform (INRA) and promoted the work of Comandos Rurales, supporting the then regime. The situation changed after the Cuban government began hunting counter-revolutionaries, in which he resigned from INRA and exiled himself with Jesuits in Havana, later going to the US, receiving CIA recruitment and training, closely involved with officer Gerry Droller. He participated in a group with dex officers, both receiving training and assessments on Useppa Island and in Panama, landing in 1961 by Brigade 2506, participating in the failed Invasion of the Bay of Pigs, being captured by the Cuban government in the same year. He was released in 1962, joining President John F. Kennedy in a welcoming ceremony for the brigade's captives. He participated in the counterrevolutionary unit AMWORLD, with attacks on coastal installations in Cuba, but the unit was abolished under Lyndon B. Johnson. Other things involved would be a failed attempt to assassinate Fidel Castro and organized the Miami Watergate scandal.
  • Erneido Oliva - He was a Cuban soldier who graduated from the Artillery Academy in 1955, being an instructor at the Caribbean School of the US Army in panama canal zone between 1958-59. Even with the purge of the military after the Cuban revolution, he was still appointed Inspector General of INRA, but ended up participating in a group that planned a campaign against Castro in 1960, in which he left the army in the same year, which, along with other 40 young people, was trained in Guatemala by the CIA. He became deputy commander of Brigade 2506, participating in the Bay of Pigs invasion at the behest of Pepe San Roman in 1961, but was caught by the Cuban government in 1962 after the Cuban government ransom the three Brigade leaders. Along with Artime and others captured from the brigade, they sided with John F. Kennedy in a welcoming ceremony and developed a good relationship with Attorney Robert F. Kennedy. It was involved with the Cuban Project, led by Manuel Artime, carrying out coastal attacks in Cuba, having its headquarters in Costa Rica and Nicaragua, but ended up being terminated in the LBJ government, after the death of JFK. Even so, he remained anti-Castro after several military appointments, founding the Cuban-American Military Council (CAMCO) to promote cooperation with the anti-Castro Cuban military. In 2008, Oliveira won the Heritage Award, a few years later he was appointed to the Board of Governors of the United States Organizations (USO) by then President George W. Bush. He ended up dying on January 30, 2020 from natural causes.

Singapore

Simplistically, Singapore under the People's Action Party (PAP) is the titular example of authoritarian capitalism, in which it is the country with the most economic freedom in the world according to both the 2023 Economic Freedom of the World report published by the Fraser Institute and the 2023 Index of Economic Freedom co-published by the Heritage Foundation and the Wall Street Journal, but is regarded as a partial democracy. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit, Singapore is a flawed democracy, and Freedom House gives it a score of 48 out of 100 in the Freedom in the World 2024 report.[17]

However, it should be noted that the PAP takes a nominally pragmatic approach to governance, and its policies are often syncretic and ideologically diverse.

Singapore's authoritarian perception follows from its relatively heavy limitations on speech and other liberties. For instance, by virtue of Singapore's multicultural and multiethnic nature, hate speech and other messages considered divisive are punishable by fine under laws such as the Internal Security Act and Maintenance of Religious Harmony Act.[18] It should also be noted that Singaporean elections are fairly conducted, but allegations of PAP-favoring gerrymandering have been made.

Singapore is also notable for stringent drug distribution penalties, with capital punishment used as a deterrent against trafficking illegal substances. Singapore has thus become known pejoratively as the "Disneyland with the death penalty" by Science Fiction writer William Gibson in light of its major socioeconomic success while still administering the death penalty.[19]

  • Lee Kuan Yew - Lee Kuan Yew (1923-2015) was the first Prime Minister of Singapore and is widely considered to be the city state's founding father. Lee was born in Singapore when it was still under British colonial rule as part of the Straits Settlements. During the Japanese Occupation in the midst of WWII, Lee managed to evade execution as Imperial Japan perpetrated the Sook Ching massacres.[20]

The future leader of Singapore got a job with the Japanese propaganda department (Hōdōbu) in late 1943, as an English specialist in order to support his family during the period of Japanese-imposed economic hardship. Because of his experiences through the occupation, Lee Kuan Yew believed that no Empire had the right to rule over Singapore and that its would eventually have to push for independence and self-determination.

After the war and Japan's surrender to the Allied Forces, Lee got a Queen's scholarship and went to study abroad in London where his anti-colonial sentiments kept growing. He returned to Singapore in 1950 together with his wife Kwa, determined to end British colonial rule and create a unified and independent Malaya and Singapore. Lee turned heavily to the Singapore's Chinese-speaking community and trade unions and was willing to cooperate with regional communist movements as he sought to create a popular front.

This coalition between Lee and left-wing groups became the The People's Action Party (PAP) in 1954. However, the communist wings of the PAP were deemed too violent in protesting for Singapore's independence, and Lee removed those elements from the party.

The People's Action Party won its first electoral victory in the 1959 election and Lee Kuan Yew became the independent Singapore's first prime minister. Singapore initially was apart of Malaysia, but ideological differences and Malaysia's pursuit of malay racial preference led to Singapore being ejected from the union in 1965. Lee and the PAP continued to be elected with a supermajority parliamentary control at every election and oversaw Singapore's transformation from a third-world fishing village into a developed high economy country, with a highly effective, anti-corrupt and technocratic government and civil service.

Lee eschewed populist policies in favor long term social and economic planning and did everything he could to attract foreign investment for multinational corporations (MNCs). In particular, Singapore's public education system was developed as a means to develop the human capital of Singapore, incentivising MNCs to establish regional hubs in Singapore due to the skilled workforce. Singapore consistently ranks at the top of the World Bank's "Ease of Doing Business Report."

However, Lee's rule has been described as authoritarian by critics, with accusations of curtailing press freedoms, imposing narrow limits on public protests, and bringing defamation lawsuits against political opponents. But along with this authoritarianism, Singapore has pursued citizen-benefiting policies in what can be described as a hybrid paternalistic conservatism. For instance, despite these liberal economic policies, the PAP has also pursued many welfare policies not typically seen in economies as free as Singapore. For instance, purchasable public housing is subsidised, and many types of financial and social assistance are available to struggling Singaporeans.

In 1990, Lee Kuan Yew stepped down as Prime Minister and was succeeded by Goh Chok Tong, who served for 12 years until Lee Hsien Loong was elected to parliament and became Prime Minister.

  • Lee Hsien Loong : Lee Kuan Yew's eldest son Lee Hsien Loong has served as Prime Minister of Singapore and Secretary-General of the People's Action Party (PAP) since 2004. Although Lee Hsien Loong isn't quite as authoritarian as his father, other political parties still don't stand much of a chance against the PAP come elections. Press Freedom remains low despite Singapore's high human development.[21]

The United States

Main Article: Neoconservatism

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Mexico

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Guatemala

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Venezuela

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  • Juan Vicente Gómez was a Military general and the dictator of Venezuela during 1908 until 1935.

Juan Vicente Gómez was born on July 24, 1857. In 1899, he joined the private army of Cipriano Castro, Gómez's friend since Castro's exile to Colombia. This private army swept control of Caracas in the same year and seized control of the country, this event being called the Revolución Liberal Restauradora (Restorative liberal revolution on English.) After the revolution, Castro became Venezuela's president, Gómez being his vice-president, and on 1902, he became the head of the military. In November 1908, Castro abandoned Venezuela due to his health, and leaved Gómez as the provisional president during his absence. On December 19, after rumours of Castro plotting a murder on Gómez, the latter one couped the country and became the president of Venezuela. During his time as the president, he freed political prisoners, did countless reforms to the constitution and implanted ephemeral puppet government to keep him in power, censored the press, but, on the other side, Gómez also gave Venezuela a new name (since Venezuela had a bad reputation on Western due to Castro's conflicts with European countries) created the country's first airline, the Air Force, commissioned constructions for the first airports, and was known as "El Pacificador" (The Pacifier) due to his actions on the Liberating Revolution (not to be confused with the aforesaid Restorative liberal revolution) a civil war perpetrated by other caudillos to topple Castro during 1901 to 1903. Gómez died on December 17, 1935, with 78 years. His mandate lasted 26 (almost 27) years.

Operation Condor

Main Articles: Neoconservatism, Pinochetism, and National Capitalism, and Caudillismo

Operation Condor was an operation between 1968 and 1989 in South America, which took governments from the left and placed capitalist dictatorships. The operation is known for its anti-communism and being an example of "American imperialism". The affected countries were: Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Bolivia, Chile and Paraguay and their supporters were:

  • Luis Posada Carriles - Luis Posada Carriles was an anti-communist militant and terrorist, in which he was responsible for overseeing the capture of Che Guevara. In the condor operation, he was responsible for carrying out terrorist attacks in Cuba and the assassination of Orlando Letelier, the main opponent of the Pinochet government.
  • Jorge Rafael Videla, Alfredo Stroessner, Hugo Banzer - The aforementioned dictators are now very similar, Videla being the cruelest. In these dictatorships, indigenous peoples were persecuted, economic liberalization, support for Nazi refugees and (in Videla's case) persecution of Jews.
  • Emílio Garrastazu Médici - Emílio Garrastazu Médici was a Brazilian dictator who took over after the condor operation. The Medici government is known for economic improvement and Authoritarianism, especially for AI5, a law that allows censorship, restricting civil rights and torture. It also banned pornography.
  • Juan María Bordaberry - Juan María Bordaberry was a Uruguayan dictator who also took over in the condor operation, in the 1973 coup. His system was capitalist and agricultural with inspirations from Fascism and Francoism.
  • Augusto Pinochet - See: Pinochetism.

Peru

Francisco Bermúdez

Francisco Morales Bermúdez was a Peruvian military officer and politician known for overthrowing the leftist socialist-leaning military government of Juan Velasco Alvarado in August 29th 1975. Initially, the new military government claimed to continue the revolutionary process started during the previous government, but in a more moderate way without the excesses commited during Juan Velasco's era, which the new government blamed to the far-left influence, which was proposed to be removed, first by disbanding SINAMOS. However, in early 1976, the government officially abandoned its pro-socialist agenda, and would start counter-reforms with some liberalization of the economy, while still being an authoritarian military dictatorship with a statist Velascoist-like economy. After a nationwide strike organized by the CGTP in 1977, Morales-Bermúdez's military government started a democratic transition process, which was completed in 1980.

Alberto Fujimori

Flag of Fujimorism

Fujirmorism arose in 1989 with the creation of the political party "Cambio 90", created by the Peruvian-Japanese politician Alberto Fujimori. At that time, Peru was suffering an era of serious terrorism by far-left groups, being the main Shining Path, a group which followed an ideology called "Gonzalo Thought", which was an extremely radical fusion of Marxism, Leninism and Maoism.

It is in this climate of terror that Fujimorism, of a neoliberal and anti-communist nature, easily wins the 1990 general elections against his rival, the democratic liberal Mario Vargas Llosa, making Fujimori president of Peru.

During his rule, Fujimorism practically destroyed the terrorist groups using unconventional means (repression, assassinations, death squads), and to remain in power, he decided to carry out a self-coup in 1992, turning Peru into a dictatorship.

By 2000, and due to unpopularity, accusations of corruption, and Fujimori health problems, Fujimorism was forced to leave power. Fujimori's daughter Keiko Fujimori has procured a carrier in Peruvian politics in his steed.

South Korea

Main Article: Ilminism

  • Park Chung-hee was a dictator in South Korea and the 3rd head of state in modern South Korea. In his government, the economy grew substantially, as it hears numerous economic miracles, the best known being the sharp drop in mortality and extreme poverty. He was also extremely authoritarian, banned freedom of expression and politics, sent homeless people to forced labor camps, and replaced Buddhism with Protestantism, banned the Chinese language and implanted nationalism.

Japan

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The Philippines

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Russia

Main Articles: Kleptocracy, and Oligarchy

Dmitry Medvedev

Dmitry Medvedev began his official career in 2005, when he was elected deputy prime minister.

In 2007, he was nominated by Putin as interim president of Russia in place of prominent and popular politicians, and a year later, Medvedev won a fraudulent election. Medvedev has in fact been de facto relegated to the role of figure number two, a kind of vizier of Russia, who can have the same powers as the leader, but cannot take his place or claim it in any way.

After 4 years in power, Medvedev sensationally voluntarily returns the presidency to Putin and resigns as prime minister, a position he held from 2012 until the resignation of his government in January 2020, after which Mikhail Mishustin was elected as Russia's new prime minister.

After his resignation, Medvedev suddenly began to criticize the collective West, and with the launch of the 'Special Military Operation', he officially became an anti-Western politician, and in fact advocated imposing a host of sanctions on Russia. Medvedev started advocating for the increased usage of the death penalty and a tightening of various laws.

China

Main Article: Dengism

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Iran

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Kazakhstan

  • Nursultan Nazarbayev is a Kazakh politician who served as the first President of Kazakhstan, in office from the country’s independence in 1991 until his formal resignation in 2019, and as the Chairman of the Security Council of Kazakhstan from 1991 to 2022. Nazarbayev began his political career during the Soviet Era and served as Prime Minister of the Kazakh SSR from 1984 until 1989 when he became First Secretary of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan (QKP), 1989. In 1990, Nazarbayev was appointed as Kazakhstan's first president by the Supreme Soviet and supported Russian President Boris Yeltsin against the attempted coup in August 1991 by the Soviet hardliners.

After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Nazarbayev turned Kazakhstan into a kleptocratic dictatorship, through the ruling party Nur Otan and like many other post-communist countries, as human rights abuses were severe, dissent was suppressed, and elections were not free and fair, with Nazarbayev regularly winning over 90% of the vote. Nazarbayev established a cult of persona, with schools, streets, and even the country's capital being named after himself. In contrast to other Post-Soviet leaders such as Alexander Lukashenko of Belarus or Sapamurat Niyazov of Turkmenistan, Nazarbayev went beyond state capitalism and actively pursued privatization of industries and encouraged foreign investment by multinational corporations. During his 3-decade-long rule he managed to balance international relations between both Russia, the US, and China. Nazarbayev went to great lengths to maintain close economic ties with Russia by introducing Kazakhstan into the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) and the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU) while also pursuing close cooperation with NATO, and participating in China's Belt and Road Initiative.

Nazarbayev's dictatorial rule would face much resistance on multiple occasions. Most notably by businessman and political activist Mukhtar Ablyazov who lives in exile in Europe because of his political activities and corruption charges. In December 2011, opponents of Nazarbayev rioted in the Mangystau region, resulting in 15 people being shot dead by security forces, in what was known as the Zhanaozen massacre and subsequent trials and arrests of protestors revealing widespread torture and abuse of detainees. In March 2019, Nazarbayev finally resigned from the presidency amid anti-government rallies and was succeeded by his close ally Kassym-Jomart Tokayev.

  • Kassym-Jomart Tokayev - After Nazarbayev's departure in 2019, Tokayev assumed the presidency of Kazakhstan. After taking office, he adopted some reforms over time, such as decentralization, increasing wages, decreasing corruption, ending capital punishment, a slight decrease in authoritarianism, and other reforms. Economically, he supports the private sector, in addition to adopting fiscal policies (inflation control, tax incentives, etc), increasing cryptocurrency mining, building plants. Even after Nazarbayev left, the Kazak government continued to be extremely authoritarian, as in the case of the "bloody January" that took place after demonstrations against the sharp rise in gas prices, in which the government repressed with an iron fist, with military intervention supported by the Organization of Collective Security Treaty (CSTO), but still protests escalated and became more violent, along with discontent over inequalities and the plight of the government. The government called the protesters terrorists and continued the repression, in total 227 people died and thousands were arrested, in addition to the government taking into account some of the protesters' agenda (inequality, gas price, etc).

Kyrgyzstan

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Ukraine

Mykola Lebed : is a Ukrainian politician, one of the leading leaders of the OUN-B. Lybid was the head of the OUN-B security service and one of the founders of the UPA and UGVR (underground parliament). Leonid Kuchma : Second President of Ukraine (1994-2004), father of the Ukrainian oligarchy, red director. During his reign, Kuchma ruled Ukraine using the formula - "The state is me." He concentrated power completely in his hands, suppressed movements and parties opposing him, maneuvered between the East and the West. His rule, which led to the relative stabilization of Ukraine's economy in the late 1990s and the creation of a stable currency, was remembered as absolutist and authoritarian. The last drop of popular anger and discontent was the murder of journalist Heorhiy Gongadze and the falsification of the 2004 elections in favor of his successor. this all led to the Orange Revolution of 2004 and the overthrow of the Kuchma regime


Uzbekistan

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Tunisia

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Egypt

  • Hosni Mubarak - Hosni Mubarak was a former president, former vice president and briefly former prime minister, in addition to have had a military career. As a military man, he trained in the Soviet Union, entering the Frunze Military Academy in Moscow, returning to Egypt afterwards. In Egypt, he became commander of the air force academy, in which he doubled the amount of pilots, having a supposed strong participation in the Yom Kippur war, in which the pilots hit 90% of the targets, becoming a national hero. There have been claims that he changed documents in the Yom Kippur war to favor himself, taking credit for Saad El-Shazli (according to the general's daughter), while others claim he played a greater role psychologically.

As vice-president of Anwar Sadat, he tried to disassociate himself and disengage Egypt and other countries from Israel, as in the case that he tried to make a disengagement agreement, but was blocked by the then president of Syria Hafez Al-Assad. He also improved relations with Saudi Arabia and royals, as well as a certain power in international relations and opposing the Camp David Accords.

He came to the presidency in 1981, after the death of Anwar Sadat. As president, Egypt was suspended from membership in the Arab League because of Sadat's previous peace treaty with Israel, but ended up moving even closer to Saudi Arabia. After the alleged threat of Khomeini in the Islamic world and the Iran-Iraq war, there was a rapprochement between Egypt and the League, especially its support for member countries (such as Iraq and Jordan), making Egypt join the Arab League in 1989. Mubarak's government, there was a strong increase in the economy, services, housing, medicines, etc..., in addition to being pro economic freedom and the Egyptian state employing 8 million people. Many accuse him of anti-Semitism and police authoritarianism, also having reports of various methods of torture and sexual abuse by police, as well as an autocracy. He maintained strong relations with the US and a certain dependence on the economy, but there were some divergences between the two and a slight improvement with the USSR. One of the outstanding things about his government was the corruption and family plutocracy, in which there were accusations that his family could have up to 70 billion with illegal activities (bribery, embezzlement, illegal trade...), in addition to increasing corruption involving entrepreneurs. He was a strong opponent of Islamic radicalism, being pro-secularism, in which jihadists have already tried to assassinate him.

After the detonation of a bomb next to a Christian church in Alexandria in 2011, several Christian and Muslim people began to protest against their government and its police brutality, which after the fall of Ben-Ali in the Arab Spring, the protests intensified. After Egypt experienced economic problems, protests reached hundreds of thousands, causing Mubarak to resign in the same year.

  • Ahmed Nazif - Ahmed Nazif was Mubarak's former prime minister and former Minister of Communications and Information Technology, known for his combination of technocracy and neoliberalism. As prime minister, he was accused of wasting money and corruption, but the Egyptian courts found him not guilty. As Minister of Communications and Information Technology, he was known for encouraging investment from international markets and IT, in addition to free internet and private markets, also promoting outsourcing, preventing brain drain, increasing the means of communication (even though Egypt is a dictatorship), among other improvements that won him the Medal of First Degree of Science and Art in Egypt.

Nigeria

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Liberia

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Rhodesia/Zimbabwe

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South Africa

  • Lennox Sebe - Lennox Sebe was the first president, former chief minister and responsible for the independence of the Ciskei Bantustan, also being the founder and leader of the National Independent Party Ciskei.

As president, he ruled Ciskei with an iron fist, creating a dictatorship that persecuted opponents, unions (such as the Allied Workers Union of South Africa, banned in 1983), strikers and even some anti-government family members such as his brother Charles Sebe tried to overthrow him, but failed and was later arrested. After his prison break, Charles kidnapped Sebe's son in 1987, causing Sebe to release some politicians in return. He also had very close contact with Israel, creating a commercial office in Tel Aviv, he even claimed that Israell had given recognition to Ciskei, but the Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs denied it.

During a state visit to Hong Kong, Brigadier General Oupa Gqozo staged a coup d'état in 1990, being the penultimate president of Ciskei. After the presidency, he was accused of corruption and human rights violations.

Rwanda

  • Paul Kagame - Paul Kagame is an ethnic Tutsi and the current President of Rwanda, former President of the African Union, former Vice President, former Minister of defense and ex-military from both Rwanda and Uganda. As a military man, he participated in the Bush War and resistance against Idi Amin, joining Museveni's army, FRONASA, later also joining the Popular Resistance Army. Later, along with Fred Rwigyema, they joined the Rwandan Patriotic Front. Along with Fred Rwigyema, they fought in the Rwandan Civil War, with the RPF becoming a guerrilla war against Hutu presidents, who planned to exterminate the Tutsis, triggering the Genocide in Rwanda. Even though he managed to defeat the government, stop the genocide and save lives, many question his methods, especially his appreciation for the power and alleged extremism of some RPF members.

As defense minister, he was accused of attacking Hutu refugees in Congo, as well as having participated in Congo's wars against Mobuto, even though he had allegations of human rights abuse against Kagame. He tried civic nationalism, with a government not dominated by Tutsis, but there were accusations of quarrels against Hutus.

After scandals of corruption and mismanagement, then-President Bizimungu resigned in 2000, leaving the post to Kagame, even though he had claims Bizimungu was a puppet of Kagame. He won 3 elections in 2003, 2010 and 2017, but there were accusations of state interference to ensure Kagame's victory. In his government, there were several improvements, especially economic and social, in general, the most notable measures are:[22]

    • Having condemned the main actors involved in the genocide in Rwanda and having condemned the UN's lack of action against the genocide.
    • Reduction of extreme poverty that in 2000 was 58.9% dropped to 44.9% in 2012.
    • Vaccination of 97% of children against ten different diseases.
    • Average increase of 7% of GDP per year.
    • Vetoing a bill in 2009 that intended to criminalize homosexuality.
    • 61.3% of Rwanda's parliament is composed of women.
    • Liberalization and debureaucratization of the economy.
    • Investment in poverty alleviation and technology.
    • Decreased corruption.

Even with improvements in some aspects, there are still numerous accusations of human rights abuse, such as killing opponents even outside the country, such as the case of Patrick Karegeyana and the attempted murder of Kayumba Nyamwasa. The South African government accuses Kagame of killing opponents in his country. In addition to the Democracy Index classifying Ruando as a dictatorship, more authoritarian than Russia.

  • Édouard Ngirente - Édouard Ngirente is the current prime minister of Rwanda chosen by Paul Kagame after the 2017 elections, he was also a former mechanical consultant to the Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning, former adviser to the Executive Director of the World Bank and former professor at the National University of Rwanda. When prime minister, he encouraged foreign investment, tax payments, environmental preservation, support for Kagame, better relations with other African countries and increased infrastructure.

Pakistan

  • Ayub Khan Ayub Khan was the first military dictator of Pakistan, he had a laissez-faire approach to economics, with few taxes, causing a very powerful elite to form

Still though Pakistan was one of the fastest growing economies at the the time, and he brought many industrial developments and technological progress with it.

During his rule he banned opposing parties and imprisoned or suppressing political opponents. He also maintained a strict control over the media and censored critical voices.

In addition to these measures, He also implemented a number of policies that consolidated his own power and weakened the institutions of the country, he introduced a new constitution in 1962 that gave him greater control over the government and limited the powers of the parliament.

He is also often accused of sparking division with Bangladesh due to seperationist policies, during his presidency, East Pakistan was largely marginalized and underrepresented in the government and in national decision-making processes. This led to growing resentment among the Bengali population in East Pakistan, who felt that they were being treated unfairly compared to their counterparts in West Pakistan.

Another factor that contributed to the division between East and West Pakistan was his policies on language and culture. In 1952, there had been a major uprising in East Pakistan over the issue of language rights, and many Bengalis felt that their language and culture were being suppressed by the central government. His government took a hardline stance on this issue, which further fueled the discontent in East Pakistan.

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Malaysia

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Vietnam

  • Nguyễn Tấn Dũng is one of the most influential and notable Vietnamese modern-day politicians who served as the Prime Minister of Vietnam from 2006 to 2016. Despite having been part of the Viet Cong to topple the US-backed South Vietnamese regime during the Vietnam War he has become notorious for being one of the most right-wing Vietnamese politicians since the country's reunification. During his decade-long reign, Vietnam abandoned any semblance of either socialism or democracy and became an authoritarian capitalist dictatorship strongly aligned with both western and Chinese corporate interests (although he at least pretended to oppose China's claims in the South China Sea for nationalist reasons).

Nguyễn Tấn Dũng and like-minded Vietnamese politicians cultivated an environment of corruption and nepotism making the bribery of local officials a necessity for many Vietnamese citizens to get by. Press Freedom deteriorated rapidly during his reign with netizens often being forced to pay heavy fines for criticizing the CPV's regime. Nguyễn Tấn Dũng's influence in Vietnamese politics has decreased significantly in recent times due to losing a power struggle to the current General Secretary of the CPV, Nguyễn Phú Trọng.

Ecuador

  • León Febres Cordero - León Febres Cordero was a former president of Ecuador, former mayor of Guayaquil, former senator and former deputy. As a deputy in 1966, he participated in the drafting of the new constitution, approved in 1967. In 1968, he was a senator representing the productive sectors until parliament was dissolved in 1970. He ran for president in 1984, for the Christian Social Party, which made a coalition called the Frente de Reconstrución Nacional. With the slogan "Bread, roof and jobs", he won the elections with 51.54%.

In his government, he made a strong confrontation with the parliament, especially for not making a considerable increase in salary, but a little higher than inflation. An important aspect was his fiscal and neoliberal policy, in which he improved the management of public spending, making the economy grow and have surpluses. Another economic aspect of Febres Cordero was the increase in non-oil exports, reaching 1.8 billion dollars, in addition to strong investments in construction (especially hospitals), roads, health and culture, reaching 15% of the central banks , generating 5% profit.

There were numerous accusations of corruption, especially in the armed forces with over-invoicing, being evident in the case that even involved kidnapping, called "El Taurazo". There were several cases of death squads that carried out torture, kidnapping, murder and sexual abuse against some opponents, such as activist Consuelo Benavides. His government had a violent response against the Alfaro Vive terrorist group, ¡Carajo!, dubbed the "fight against crime", even though most of those tortured were not related to the group. There was the elite group escuadrones voadores/escuadrones de la muerte, in which they repressed protests and carried out "social cleansing" against prostitutes, people of the left, LGBT people, some indigenous people and transsexuals. This elite used mutilation and torture that left the survivors with permanent physical deformities, being financed by the private sector. Among other scandals, they did not run in the 1988 elections, being succeeded by Rodrigo Borja Cevallos.

as mayor of Guayaquil, he decentralized and practiced a social market economy and modernization of the city.

Serbia

Main Article: Ethnonationalism

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Bosnia and Herzegovina

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Montenegro

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Bulgaria

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Greece (2019-)

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Turkey

Main Articles: Neo-Ottomanism and Stratocracy

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Georgia

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Albania

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Azerbaijan

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Iraq

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Iraqi Kurdistan

Kurdistan refers to Iraqi Kurdistan, the autonomous zone, not the proposal

  • Nechirvan Barzani - Nechirvan Barzani is the current president of Kurdistan, a two-time former prime minister and a former member of parliament. He is a member of the KDP and entered parliament in 1993, in which he made negotiations with the Iraqi government for Kusdistan. In the meantime he was briefly former prime minister.

In the times as prime minister and president, he made several reforms, expanded women's rights, secularism, economic improvement for a time, investments by foreign corporations, developmentalism (education, health, etc) and among others. In 2014, Kurdistan suffered from ISIS in the Middle East and millions of refugees, generating economic recession in the region, in which he helped refugees and later Yezidi captive survivors (3,340 rescues).

Even with the attempt at civic nationalism, there were numerous accusations of discrimination against ethnic minorities, human rights violations, repression of peaceful protests, forcing of Kurdish culture (Kurdification) and other violations. There are allegations of corruption by him and the Barzani family, including systematic corruption, embezzlement of millions of dollars and corruption involving businessmen, most leaked by WikiLeaks.

Libya

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Grenada

  • Eric Gairy - Eric Gairy was a former Prime Minister, former Chief Minister and former Minister of Finance in Grenada. Initially, Gairy was mostly leftist, participating in unions and even founding a labor party, the United Labor Party of Grenada, causing him to be banned and lost his seat in 1957-1961. In 1961, he was re-elected and became chief minister and finance minister, but was fired the following year over questioned uses of state funds.

When he became former prime minister, the country was in post-independence civil strife, in which Glairy created a secret police called the Mongoose Gang to pursue political opponents. He rigged the 1976 elections through the use of his secret police, also using it to persecute communists from the New Jewel Movement, generating street violence even with other gangs. In 1978, he sent scientists and an astronaut to the UN to talk about UFOs. Even with the US government helping the then-government, many US citizens supported the anti-Glairy revolutionaries and activists. In 1979, after a visit to the US, there was a rumor that he would kill the New Jewel leaders, in response, Maurice Bishop overthrew the Gairy government and established a communist monarchy, even generating anti-Gairy activism in the US.

The American government went into exile from 1979 and 1983, returning to Grenada in 1893, participating in elections which he lost and dying in 1997.

Guyana

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Qatar

Main Article: Monarcho-Capitalism

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Estonia

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Fiji

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Haiti

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Personality and Behavior

Authcap acts like his father capitalism but more authoritarian and more willing to use the state for personal gain. May or may not like helicopters like his son Pinochetism.

How To Draw

  1. Draw a ball with eyes
  2. Color the ball black
  3. Draw a yellow inverted triangle in middle of the ball
  4. Draw a green dollar sign in the center of the triangle
Color Name HEX RGB
Yellow #FFCC00 255, 204, 0
Green #008000 0, 128, 0
Black #141414 20, 20, 20


Relationships

Board Members

  • Capitalism - I remember when you and Authoritarianism raised me.
  • Authoritarianism - Thanks for teaching me all about proper strict governance, dad.
  • Imperialism - Based! Sometimes I may pretend to oppose him for domestic support when in fact I help him maintain control of the economy of his former colonies after decolonization!
  • Neoconservatism - We need to spread capitalism all over the world and gun down any opponent.
  • Authoritarian Conservatism - Great business partner.
  • National Conservatism - He usually takes advice from you but be more like the guy above.
  • Pinochetism - Love your style of governance, son. Though I don’t understand your love of helicopter rides.
  • Optimateism - My grandfather was extremely based, great job done in the glorious Roman Empire (best proto-capitalism).
  • National Capitalism - Super based brother.
  • State Liberalism - Me with a cover of woke culture.But your "socially progressive" politics make you too left-wing for my taste.
  • Mega Corporatocracy - This idea sounds extremely interesting.
  • Corporatocracy - Good business partner and I often allow him to participate in politics. You often help me with mass surveillance and union busting.
  • Kleptocracy - Neat ideas.
  • Stratocracy - We work great together.
  • Climate Skepticism - Time to drill some oil and sell air!
  • Francoism - You became more based with time.
  • Neo-Ottomanism - Great job in Turkey.
  • Neoreactionaryism & Neocameralism - Lee Kuan Yew fans
  • Fordism - My dream.
  • Gaullism - We work great together in Africa.
  • Hindutva - I love your policies, and Modi is based!
  • Three Represents - Best CCP politician in history! I had my doubts about you at first but you eventually opened your eyes and embraced the free market during the late 1990s, and created one of the most greedy and brutal oligarchies in the world. Your foreign policy was excellent as well. Too bad, Winnie the Pooh had to oust you and your Shanghai clique from power. You should have just dropped the communism name to be perfect.
  • Putinism - I liked you better when you were more pragmatic and open. We could've happily profited together but you just had to ruin it all for the sake of your personal ambition! At least the market economy is still intact.
  • Korwinism - Best libertarian, specially Korwin himself!
  • Monarcho-Capitalism - Most of you are great business partners.

Potential Business Partners

  • Anarcho-Capitalism - Cool but why the anarchism?
  • Neoliberalism - Good job taking over the world and helping me consolidate power in third-world countries. However, there's no need for you to disguise yourself as a democratic ideology.
  • Corporatism - You know a thing or two about management but try to take my property and you die!
  • State Capitalism - Why do people think I'm you? Though still, we could be great business partners if you move more to the economic right.
  • Pink Capitalism - Disgust for individual freedom, but some (like Noriega and Batista) made good use of it.
  • Chiang Kai-shek Thought - Fellow anti-communist dictator who got stabbed many times in the back by the US for not following their orders. However, you're not market-liberal enough when it comes to economics. Killing commies is based but killing rich Shanghai capitalists was not.
  • Showa Statism - Imperial Japan was more based during the Meiji and Taishō era, but your staunch anti-communism was admirable.
  • Ba'athism - Hafez Assad is quite based, Bashar is aided by my son and Frans van Anraat helped Saddam, but you are closer to State Capitalism and pretend to be socialist.
  • Gaddafism - We used to be enemies when you funded and trained so-called "anti-imperialist", militant rebel groups across the world. Our relationship did, however, improve over time as you improved foreign relations with the west and encouraged foreign investment. I'm not sure what to think about your downfall.
  • Peronism - Viva Videla! But thanks to Menem for forgiving those involved in the dictatorship and Perón for having supported Colonia Dignidad,[23] even though left-wing Peronism sounds horrible.
  • Mobutism - Based leader overall but the US eventually turned on you and with the help of Kagame and Museveni overthrew your regime following the Rwandan Genocide.
  • Ho Chi Minh Thought (Post-1990s-) - I won't forgive you for the Fall of Saigon and destroying South Vietnam but I've been warming up to you since you initiated the Đổi Mới reforms and embraced free-market capitalism during the 1990s. Nguyễn Tấn Dũng is especially based.
  • Pol Potism - I like to say I hate you but my followers in Thailand, Singapore, and Malaysia supported you against your Vietnamese counterpart.
  • Khomeinism - I won't forgive you for the Islamic Revolution and overthrowing the Pahlavi Dynasty. However, your staunch anti-communism is based and you've gotten better with time But now you are distancing yourself from me because a boss believes in state capitalism and wants to reduce class differences.