Enlightened Absolutism

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“The revolution is over, I am the revolution.”

Enlightened Absolutism, also called Enlightened Despotism, is an ideology that believes the philosophical values of the Enlightenment Thought should be enforced through an Absolute Monarchy. enlightened absolutism can be summarised with the quote "Everything for the people, nothing by the people". Famous enlightened despots include Frederick the Great of Prussia, Napoleon Bonaparte of France, Joseph II of the Holy Roman Empire, and Catherine the Great of Russia.

History

Enlightened Absolutism emerged in Europe during the 18th century, primarily in the second half of the century. It was a response to the challenges posed by the Enlightenment, a philosophical movement that emphasized reason, scientific inquiry, and individual rights.

Enlightened Absolutism was a form of monarchy that sought to reconcile the principles of the Enlightenment with the traditional authority of the monarchy, specifically the absolute monarchy. It was characterized by the belief that monarchs should use their absolute power to promote the welfare and happiness of their subjects, rather than simply pursuing their own interests, it is considered the middle ground between absolutism and the philosophical and cultural values of the Enlightenment. It was the political system that existed before the establishment of the Constitutional Monarchy as the dominant political system of Europe alongside the Democratic Republics.

The most vocal proponent of Enlightened Absolutionism was Voltaire perceived the French bourgeoisie to be too small and ineffective, the aristocracy to be parasitic and corrupt, the commoners as ignorant and superstitious, and the Church as a static and oppressive force useful only on occasion as a counterbalance to the rapacity of kings, although all too often, even more rapacious itself. Voltaire distrusted democracy, which he saw as propagating the idiocy of the masses. Voltaire long thought only an enlightened monarch could bring about change, given the social structures of the time and the extremely high rates of illiteracy, and that it was in the king's rational interest to improve the education and welfare of his subjects. But his disappointments and disillusions with Frederick the Great changed his philosophy somewhat, and soon gave birth to one of his most enduring works, his novella Candide, ou l'Optimisme (Candide, or Optimism, 1759), which ends with a new conclusion of quietism: "It is up to us to cultivate our garden." His most polemical and ferocious attacks on intolerance and religious persecutions indeed began to appear a few years later. Candide was also burned, and Voltaire jokingly claimed the actual author was a certain 'Demad' in a letter, where he reaffirmed the main polemical stances of the text.

Russia

Main Articles: Tsarism

Peter I the Great

  • Peter I the Great - the last Russian Tsar (1682-1721) and the first Russian Emperor (1721-1725), as well as a representative of the Romanov dynasty. He was proclaimed Tsar at the age of 10 under the regent Sophia Alekseevna, and began to rule independently in 1689. Peter's formal co-ruler was his brother Ivan V (until his death in 1696).

He was proclaimed the Russian Tsar in 1682, at the age of 10, along with his half-brother Ivan, after the death of Tsar Fyodor III, the older brother. Due to his young age everything was already decided for Peter and the country was actually ruled by his older sister, Tsarevna Sofia Alekseevna, which lasted for long 7 years, until the overthrow of the regent by Peter himself, who did not waste time and constantly reinforced its position, scattering a very active.

In 1689 Peter was no longer going to tolerate the insolence of Sophia, who restricted all his rights as Tsar and was the de facto ruler of Russia for the past 7 years. During the summer Peter rolled back and arrested Sophia, weakened the position of her henchman Fyodor Shaklovity, and then executed him. An important role in the entire operation had the Preobrazhensky and Izmailovsky poteshch regiments of Peter, which represented quite a real military force. Sophia went to a monastery until the end of her life, and Peter became Tsar of Russia. Formally, his weak-minded brother Ivan V, who did not take any part in state affairs until his death in 1696, remained with him as his co-ruler.

In 1695-1696 Peter I undertook his first military campaigns. The task was to break through to the Sea of Azov by capturing the Turkish fortress of Azov. At first Russian forces were defeated near Azov, but the following year, thanks to the construction of the fleet near Voronezh, as well as the skilful command, Peter I was able to capture Azov. The fortress was able to hold on for a short time, during the Northern War, the Turks were able to win back and return Azov in 1711.

As an ardent advocate of all things European, Peter I longed to learn more about life in Western Europe. His dream was realized during the Great Embassy, when the Russian tsar sneaked into the heart of Europe and worked as a carpenter in a shipyard, where he helped to launch the ship "Peter and Paul". Also Peter I has famously traveled to different parts of Europe, but the trip had to be interrupted due to the beginning of problems in the country - began to rage streltsy who have never been particularly loyal. In total, Peter I lived abroad for 15 months and learned a lot of new things, and then returned a fully enlightened man and decided by all means to instill Western European values and procedures in their traditional country.

Beginning in 1698, Peter I begins to aggressively impose Western European orders in Russia. The catalyst is the strelets riot, in the course of which the riot itself is suppressed. Peter I himself also changes significantly - he sends his first wife Catherine Lopukhina to a monastery, once again begins to meet with his old mistress Anna Mons, himself appears as a European - in "French dress", without a beard, with appropriate etiquette. In September of the same year the Tsar demanded that the highest officials shave their beards and start wearing "French dress". For those times this phenomenon in Russia was unheard of arrogance and bordered on the insult of the boyars and higher officials. Despite the backlash, Peter I forced to do as he wanted. It was he who introduced into fashion not just "French dresses" with culottes, but even wigs with white long hair. In 1700 Peter I replaced the Byzantine calendar (used in Russia since the Baptism of Russia) with the then fashionable Julian calendar, which served Russia for the next 218 years. It was then that the celebration of the New Year was introduced from January 1, as in our days, then the tradition of decorating the Christmas tree was also introduced.

The war with the Kingdom of Sweden took a full 21 years and was aimed at cutting through the very "window to Europe" that was to make Russia great and European. Having hastily forged an alliance with the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the Danish-Norwegian Union and the Court of Saxony, Peter I attacked the Swedish army in 1700, laying siege to the important fortress of Narva. Although not immediately, but the fortress itself fell and became the symbol of Russia's future victory in the war. The barely Europeanized Russian army was making progress, wearing down the Swedish troops. Instead of the original plan to cut a window through Ingermanlandia the Swedish armies were almost completely defeated and the fortresses of Revel (now Tallinn), Riga and several Baltic provinces were annexed to the Russian possessions. In 1703 on the conquered lands Peter I founded the city of St. Petersburg, which became the new capital of Russia until 1918. In 1709 the military actions were transferred to the territory of Hetmanate because of the success of the Swedish King Karl XII on the Polish front. In the decisive battle of Poltava, Peter I was able to defeat the Swedish troops. In 1711 Russia was defeated by the Ottoman Empire, but it had not weakened its position in the confrontation with Sweden. In 1714 Russia won even at sea, the young Russian fleet sank the Swedish fleet, which was considered the master of the Baltic. In 1718 Sweden sought peace in the war, but the death of King Charles XII led to the continuation of the war for 3 years. On August 30 (September 10), 1721 Russia and Sweden signed the Treaty of Nystad, which gave Russia the Ingermanlandia, Karelia, Estlandia and Livonia, and Peter the Great proclaimed himself emperor and transformed the Tsardom of Russia into the Russian Empire. From this moment began the 200-year imperial period in the history of Russia.

In 1722-1723 Peter the Great led a successful campaign to Persia, managing to pass along the coast of the Caspian Sea from Derbent to Astrabad. For a brief period Russia controlled the southern coast of the Caspian Sea for the only time in its history. Under Peter I the Great, Russia continued to develop its eastern lands and slowly moved into Central Asia. It was under Peter the Great that the cities of Omsk and Semipalatinsk (modern Semey) were founded.

In 1724 Peter the Great became very ill, and his condition only worsened with time. There were suspicions of urolithiasis, which in those days was not treated. In January 1725, the disease worsened after Peter I the Great was rescuing a ship aground on the bank of the Okhta River. On January 18, he became completely ill and ordered a marching church to be set up, where he made his confession four days later. The day before his death he resolved the question of his heir (according to the decree on succession to the throne the Emperor personally selected his successor and the old traditions of succession were abolished) and it was his second wife, Catherine Alexeevna, the former Martha Skavronskaya. Peter the Great left no living sons, but he left many daughters, one of whom, Elizaveta Petrovna, would take the Russian throne 16 years later, in 1741.

Alexander II the Liberator

Alexander II of Russia was born in Moscow on April 29, 1818 to Nicholas I and his consort Charlotte of Prussia. The background that Alexander was raised could be called extremely conservative but in this environment, he had other influences. One of these was his distaste for the Russian nobility who he thought overcomplicated issues. For this reason, he appealed to the peasantry who he saw as a mass of influenceable people who required less to be satisfied and were the backbone of the empire. When his father died in the Crimean War he changed the prevailing attitude of duty to fellow monarchies to his version of realpolitik. His crusade against the conservative nobility was an effort to suppress liberalism and adapt to the modern age, some of these reforms included limited local governance as a way to test in small areas different policies. This was done to make Russia more efficient and industrious. He was also responsible for the abolishment of serfdom which along with the financial troubles it caused resulted in Alaska being sold to America. This would lead to Russia docking its ports in American harbors during the American Civil War to dissuade France or Britain from joining the war on the side of the Confederacy. Later he go through a series of shifting alliances between Austria-Hungary and Germany and then toward Britain in France. On the day of his death, a bomb was thrown at his armored carriage which injured the driver of the carriage, in the knee-jerk reaction he went to protect his driver from further harm when another bomb was thrown at him which would cause his death from the injuries.

Chulalongkornism

Immediately after acceding to the throne, he made a tour of Europe and the United States, realized how backward Thailand was, and instituted a number of reforms known as the Chakri Reforms . One of the three great kings of Thailand, he is still very popular among the people, and his portrait is made into necklaces and posters, and his statue is placed on Buddhist altars. In 1999 , he was chosen as one of the `` 20 most influential Asian people of this century'' by Time magazine, the only Thai person to do so. The main contents of the Chakri reform are as follows.

  • It took many years to abolish the open trade in slaves . For this reason , Prince Damron dedicated him the name King of Joy ( พระปิยมหาราชเจ้า ). A painting of the emancipation of slaves still remains in the Ananta Samakhom Palace .
  • He abolished the local kings and created a centralized state .
  • A bureaucratic system was introduced to streamline administration.
  • He established the National Council and the Privy Council, which were the predecessors of the parliamentary system .
  • Started school education .
  • The Ratchadamnoen Road and its surrounding areas were improved to allow trains to run from Bangkok to Nakhon Ratchasima .
  • Started the telephone business in his country .

Foundations

Enlightened Absolutism is based on both Enlightenment values and Platonian Noocracy. As such, it supports a wise absolute monarchy that enforces Enlightenment values. The enlightened despot also listens to the advice of the experts and implements evidence-based policy.

Personality

Very confident, enlightened absolutism will go out of its way to present itself as a savior and protector of his plebs - even as he goes apeshit the moment one of them tries to reduce his absolute power. Can be genuinely well-meaning even in his narcissistic moments, and in many ways act like Autocracy if he stops looking at a mirror for more than 5 seconds each time, though on the flipside even in his helpful moments he can come off as condescending and paternalistic to those he wants to help.

How to Draw

Cross Design

Flag of Enlightened Absolutism (cross design)
  1. Draw a ball
  2. Color it purple
  3. Draw a yellow cross that touches the edges of the ball
  4. Draw the eyes
  5. Add a golden crown with red jewels
  6. You're done
Color Name HEX RGB
Purple #510143 81, 1, 67
Yellow #FFF200 255, 242, 0

Glow Design

Flag of Enlightened Absolutism (glow design)
  1. Draw a ball
  2. Color it purple
  3. Draw a light purple circle in the center
  4. Inside the lighter purple circle, draw a smaller, pink one
  5. Draw the eyes
  6. Add a golden crown with red jewels
  7. You're done

Relationships

Friends

  • Absolute Monarchism - You taught me to keep the crown's power strong in order to govern more efficiently.
  • Bonapartism - The most well known of my followers, you have done well!
  • Caesarism - Hey there ancestor! Good job in shutting down these senators blocking your reforms and teaching these stupid barbarians a lesson or two on the benefits of following a civilized leader.
  • Monarcho-Socialism - I'm skeptical about these leftist economic policies, but we seem to be fully compatible with each other, in spite of what father says.
  • Social Authoritarianism - The best the republican system can get!
  • Longism - He follows similar ideas in not allowing petty politics and corruption to get in his way to exert his will and he even has the honorary title of "Kingfisher"! Just put a crown on your head already and you will be perfect!
  • Scientocracy - The absolute king must listen to intellectuals as long as they don't propose limiting his power.
  • Noocracy - I AM the Philosopher King you like so much. Plato's dream was achieved by me.
  • Meritocracy - A skilled and talented king shall do a better job at running his kingdom than a thousand other plebs! Wait, what do you mean being a king doesn't mean I'm necessarily smart?

Mixed

  • Mladorossism - You are like my socialist buddy above, but much weirder and wacky. What the hell are you even meant to be? And your fascist leanings make me fear you aren't too enthusiastic for the pleb's freedoms I'm meant to hold up.
  • Constitutional Monarchism - Brother, I'm all for upholding the pleb's rights and listening to their problems, but do you really need to give them a place in your government? You already do your job so well without them messing with you!
  • Enlightenment Thought - FATHER I'M FOLLOWING YOUR IDEALS WHY WON'T YOU LOVE ME?
  • Matriarchal Monarchism - Of course, we can have an enlightened queen my sister, but why must it be always a queen?
  • Anarcho-Monarchism - From a technical viewpoint you have some similarities to me, but I still have no idea how you work. Also, anarchism? Are you sure you aren't just planning on secretly transferring the power to the peasants?
  • Neoreactionaryism - We both want a leader to wield absolute power over the political system and support technological advancement, but for completely different reasons.
  • Imperialism - I'm not an outspoken promoter of this, but I did engage in it occasionally if it meant helping my people. Nothing personal, I swear!
  • Francoism - He also likes the monarchy and merit, but why rule for life when you can give power to the king?
  • Classical Liberalism - I love your commitment to enlightenment values but why so Republican/ Power-limiting? If George III was an absolute monarch, he would’ve beaten your ass
  • Technoliberalism - Wants pleb representation, but supports merit.
  • Aristocracy - Don't interfere in my work aimed at improving the life of the population and we will keep friendly, deal?

Enemies

  • Carlism - Why do you oppose the Enlightenment? Can't you see we can have an absolute king in charge of the government while listening to these so-useful tips these enlightened philosophers gave to me? Why do you hate me?
  • Republicanism - A weak system that is unable to provide to the common people!
  • Democracy - The plebs are too stupid to be in charge of the kingdom's policies!
  • Jacobinism - See? This is why when the plebs are in charge, enlightened ideas get corrupted and result in bloodshed.
  • Marxism-Leninism - Aren't you just the modern version of Jacobinism?
  • Ceremonial Monarchism - Lazy, quasi-republican "monarchist".
  • Reactionaryism - You have outlived your usefulness, long live the progressive monarchy. Except that one time we teamed up against the Jacobin swine, VIVA TATA MACARONE!
  • Counter-Enlightenment - By imperial decree, cruel and unusual punishment is hereby outlawed! YOU'RE FIRED!
  • Feudalism - No idea why father left his land to an incompetent snob like you, your fiefdoms go bye-bye!
  • CSA - Decentralized? Republican? Pro-Slavery Reactionary? We'll see about that!
  • Khomeinism - Yet another reactionary republican, you're probably my opposite.
  • Cromwellism - Another obscurantist regicider.

Further Information

Wikipedia

Gallery

References

  1. Alexander appealed to the peasants whom he saw as easier to control than the court games and tactics the nobles engaged in and saw peasant appeal as a way of controlling the nobles.
  2. She continued to expropriate the Church's lands
  3. She gave the Church back the serfs they had once owned that were freed by Peter III

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