"It is not from the benevolence of the butcher, the brewer, or the baker that we expect our dinner, but from their regard to their own interest."
He was conceived some time in the early 18th century as a child of the Enlightenment. He used to believe that people had an inherent right to their "Life, Liberty and Property" though he later amended that to "Life, Liberty and The Pursuit of Happiness".
Classical Liberalism hatched the idea, partly inspired by the French Physiocrats and their concept of laissez-faire, that individual freedom and a free market would result in a balanced economical equilibrium - as long as monopolies were not allowed to develop and destroy competitiveness. He viewed free trade as a path to universal peace and prosperity. He also often strongly opposed landed aristocracy, struggling against Monarchist and Reactionary tendencies.
ClassLib is considered the original inspiration for most of the Lib-Right ideologies, including Capitalism, even though the modern concept of capitalism isn't necessarily entirely free market and free trade focused compared with the original Classical Liberalism; since monopoly and market power isn't vigorously kept in check, the state provides benefits to multiple specific corporations, and Protectionism sometimes sneaks in when it's in the interest of powerful political and economical actors - revealing the connection to ClassLib's old enemy Mercantilism.
Some time in the early 20th century ClassLib became the father of Liberalism, who managed to then make the Liberal Dynasty into what it is today; with his other offspring, Libertarianism and National Liberalism taking on more fringe positions.
Historically the philosophy of classical liberalism has a set of factors which have contributed to its creation and development; the most prominent of these factors include the individualistic attitudes and beliefs of especially the protestant Christian faith, opposition to authoritarian social contract theories which put the state or law as the source of ethics as opposed to the other way around, as well as the rise of international trade and industrialisation.
The foundation of classical liberal philosophy is generally attributed to the English philosopher John Locke and his "Two Treatises of Government" (1689) - while the arguably equally important and intrinsically linked classical economy is based on Adam Smith's "An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations" (1776).
Throughout the history of liberal thought, there's been competing branches, ranging from what could be called "traditionalism" to "radicalism" . Thinkers such as John Locke and David Hume may be considered relatively traditionalist, while thinkers such as Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Thomas Paine were much more radical in their concepts of liberty. Even Adam Smith may be considered relatively radical in his approach to certain things such as aristocracy and monopoly power, perceiving that markets could fail if natural monopolies were allowed to form.
Development and decline
The United States Constitution was firmly cemented in a liberal philosophy, and the later 19th century success of liberal policies, free trade, etc. in Western Europe and the United States contributed to a massive growth in productivity and exchange.
Later thinkers such as Jeremy Bentham and J.S. Mill would introduce a utilitarian liberal approach which could be considered a part of a more left-wing branch, at least relatively, being also concerned with inequality resulting from the failures of markets in certain situations. This would eventually give rise to Social Liberalism.
Towards the 20th century, there was still a marked division within the liberal ideology, and political radicals such as David Lloyd George in the UK were at odds with more traditionalist liberals as he passed the People's Budget which provided hitherto unprecedented welfare and sought to impose taxes on the wealthy, especially the landed aristocracy.
In the UK, the liberals would eventually be marginalised by the increasingly dominant dichotomy between Socialism and Capitalism, with the Conservative Party taking on the mantle of Paternalistic Conservatism and the newly formed Labour Party wanting to drive social reforms even further than the Liberal Party.
In the US previous to the 1930s election, Democrats, such as Grover Cleveland, were Classical Liberals, thus the party was associated to (Classical) Liberalism and its members were regarded as Liberals. Franklin D. Roosevelt, however, despite representing a huge shift from this ideology, kept on identifying along with his followers as a "Liberal". That's why in The US, liberalism is more often used to refer to Social Liberalism, while in other parts of the world liberalism kept a meaning closer to the original one of Classical Liberalism (though in Europe especially, political parties espousing the term "Liberal" are oftentimes mostly a mixed bag of Neoliberal, Neoconservative, Liberal Conservative and Social Liberalism).
Classical Liberalism and Libertarianism
Those who, in the US, used to identify as Liberals in the broader sense had to start calling themselves Classical Liberals, or Liberals in the Classical tradition, and later in the 40s they started using the term "Libertarianism" to refer to themselves, appropriating the term from Libertarian Socialists, to be differentiated from the Democratic party adherents; and with the passing of time and the radicalization of ideas, the meaning of the term Libertarianism shifted from a synonym of Classical Liberalism to a more modern version of it, and usually more radical, but sometimes the terms are still used interchangeably, such as Milton Friedman who described himself sometimes as a Classical Liberal and sometimes as a Libertarian.
Some modern Libertarian anti-statists have started to (re)appropriate the term in order to make their vision of a society based purely on property rights and the free market more legitimate, but some say that it bears little resemblance with the views of the original founders of Liberalism, who were far from being Anarcho-Capitalists, proposing instead something close to a night-watchmen state.
However some Anarcho-Capitalists argue that during the 20th century one can identify a distinct radical wing within the Classical Liberal movement, referring to Classical Liberals such as Gustave de Molinari, Herbert Spencer and Auberon Herbert, thus calling themselves Classical Liberals (or rather Radical Classical Liberals) wouldn't be as far from the original meaning as it might seem at first.
Classical liberalism and libertarianism hold very similar ideologies, with libertarianism often seen as an extension or refinement of classical liberalism. However, libertarianism is a response to challenges faced by classical liberalism, particularly from stateists, which means they have made some modifications to classical liberalism. Nevertheless, even liberalism, which emphasizes the role of the state, can be seen as an improvement upon classical liberalism.
Classical liberal economics adheres to the labor theory of value, while libertarian economics supports the theory of marginal utility and opposes the objective theory of value.
Libertarianism emphasizes that democracy and freedom are distinct concepts. Democracy is not synonymous with freedom, and freedom is not synonymous with democracy. Libertarianism often downplays the importance of democracy and, in some cases, even argues that monarchies might be more conducive to freedom than democracies.
Adam Smith was a Scottish economist and philosopher who was a pioneer in the thinking of political economy and key figure during the Scottish Enlightenment. Also seen as "The Father of Economics" or "The Father of Capitalism", he wrote two classic works, The Theory of Moral Sentiments and An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. The latter, often abbreviated as The Wealth of Nations, is considered his magnum opus and the first modern work that treats economics as a comprehensive system and as an academic discipline. Smith refuses to explain the distribution of wealth and power in terms of God’s will and instead appeals to natural, political, social, economic and technological factors and the interactions between them. In his work, Smith introduced, among others, his theory of absolute advantage. The Wealth of Nations was a precursor to the modern academic discipline of economics. In this and other works, Smith expounded how rational self-interest and competition can lead to economic prosperity.
Smith was controversial in his own day and his general approach and writing style were often satirised by Tory writers in the moralising tradition of Hogarth and Swift, as a discussion at the University of Winchester suggests. In 2005, The Wealth of Nations was named among the 100 Best Scottish Books of all time. In light of the arguments put forward by Smith and other economic theorists in Britain, academic belief in mercantilism began to decline in Britain in the late 18th century. During the Industrial Revolution, Britain embraced free trade and Smith's laissez-faire economics, and via the British Empire, used its power to spread a broadly liberal economic model around the world, characterised by open markets, and relatively barrier-free domestic and international trade. Smith has been commemorated in the UK on banknotes printed by two different banks; his portrait has appeared since 1981 on the £50 notes issued by the Clydesdale Bank in Scotland ,and in March 2007 Smith's image also appeared on the new series of £20 notes issued by the Bank of England, making him the first Scotsman to feature on an English banknote.
The Bourbon Democrats were a faction in the Democratic Party during the late 19th century. They were never a formal group but were instead a collection of Democrat voters who coalesced around shared political goals. The term "Bourbon Democrat" was actually a term created by their critics to describe their ideas as being old fashioned. Bourbon Democrats were supporters of Fiscal Conservatism and Laissez-Faire Capitalism, while opposing bimetallism favoring the gold standard. They also supported Civil Service Reform. Bourbon Democrats supported the business interests of banks and railroads as well as the presidential candidacies of Samuel Tilden and Grover Cleveland. The Bourbon Democrats ceased to be a force in American politics after Woodrow Wilson was elected president in 1912 and named William Jennings Bryan, a leading opponent of the Bourbon Democrats, as Secretary of State.
Maderismo is a political movement based on the ideology of Francisco I. Madero who seeked the resignation of the then President of Mexico Porfirio Díaz. As a member of the upper-class Madero was able to acknowledge the systemic problems around Díaz's technocratic government. As a classical liberal from his time and taking inspiration from previous figures like Benito Juarez he valued the political participation of the citizens from all sectors of society, freedom of speech and assembly, restitution of land and the adoption of a liberal economy that would allow the population to participate without restrictions from Porfirian aristocracy.
Washingtonism is based on the political ideology of the first President of the Untied States, George Washington. Despite being elected unanimously, Washington was not a very deep political thinker. He considered himself to be a farmer and a soldier rather than a politician. As such he took a moderate approach to his position as President and surrounded himself with the brightest minds in America including Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton. While Washington valued the input from both men, he more often sided with Alexander Hamilton, particularly on economic and foreign policy issues. Above all Washington's main goal as president was to unite the thirteen colonies under the new federal government and prevent fractioning over geographic or political lines.
- Sleepy & old
- Slight Scottish accent
- Likes to talk about the benefits of freedom and his correlation with knowledge and wealth
- Act as a gentleman
How to Draw
- Draw a ball with Eyes
- Draw a tricolour of Dark Blue, Gold and White.
- (Optional) draw a renaissance wig.
|White||#FFFFFF||255, 255, 255|
|Yellow||#FFDB28||255, 219, 40|
|Dark Blue||#39386E||57, 56, 110|
- Enlightenment Thought - Thanks for helping me shape my worldview, dad!
- Constitutionalism - One of my major inspirations, I greatly admire him!
- Capitalism - We kicked their ass together!
- Liberalism - I remember when you were a baby. You won't be as influential as me, but I hope that someday you'll prove me wrong.
- National Liberalism - 1848, best year in Europe!
- Georgism - Ah yes, my forgotten nephew! Ground-rents, and the ordinary rents from land, are probably the best sources of tax revenue, indeed.
- Christian Liberalism & Christian Libertarianism - Definitely the best Christians, not to mention that many classical liberal writers were Christians.
- Libertarianism - Good ideas but I did also invent the idea of a social contract.
- Liberaltarianism - Oh boy... Well you do combine the best aspects of Social Liberalism and Libertarianism but you're kind of *ahem* inbred.
- Social Libertarianism - Liberty and free markets, but do try to ease off the subsidies though.
- Fiscal Conservatism - I like to discuss economics with him.
- Civic Nationalism - Most respectable stanistanist, Ernest Renan was great.
- Patriotism - Similar to above.
- Jeffersonian Democracy - The American revolution was f*cking awesome! Also the rest of your ideas are pretty enlightning!
- Girondism - My main representative in the French revolution.
- Friedmanism & Hayekism - My greatest representatives in the XX century.
- Coolidgism - Protectionist but overall pretty good president.
- Monetarism - Good monetary policy but gold and no central banks will be even better.
- Helvetic Model - The best model nowadays.
- Steiner-Vallentyne School - A left wing version of me. Also, we both like John Locke.
- Jacksonian Democracy - Extremely based ideology, but your racism and populism...
- Jacobinism - You may be my oldest rival, but I still remember when we declared the First Republic together.
- Radical Democracy - You’re basically a somewhat less violent version of the above.
- Ricardian Socialism - You completely misunderstand Ricardo! At least you understand why we must have a market though.
- Market Socialism - My son, how exactly do you expect this to work? At least you're rational enough to understand why we need a free market.
- Liberal Socialism - I largely agree with John Stuart Mill, but I'm still not so sure about this socialism stuff though.
- Radicalism - It's complicated. On one hand his progressive ideas of egalitarianism makes him a die hard liberal, right? But I have no idea what he achieves when he supports the french Revolution or turns towards anticapitalism.
It's not my fault I didn't compensate certain people that didn't own property, damnit.
- Social Liberalism - My progressive and welfare-loving grandchild. You stole my name!
- Social Democracy - I admire you're willingness to accept the need for capitalism, but you're still too close to him.
- Right-Social Democracy - Thank you for (kind of) saving capitalism, even if your idea of it is still very flawed.
- Social Capitalism - Just like the above.
- Conservative Liberalism - My very moderate son, stop compromising with aristocrats and tyrants!
- Liberal Conservatism - I like Peel for joining with me but you are still too conservative for me.
- Reactionary Liberalism -
Bastard child.And I thought he could be a little crazy...
- Ordo-Liberalism - Classical liberalism beats New Liberalism!
- Neoliberalism - I wish you weren't so regulatory like your dad. Also, what's with all these invasions with your friend?
- Third Way - Ah yes, my great-grandchild who isn't very different from their parent...
- Liberal Hawk - Am I seeing double?
- American Model - You engage to much with the guys of above.
- Paleolibertarianism - You and the above are both insane but are family so I still love you.
- Austrian School - My dear son, I admire your economic vision, I really do, but can't you see that they stand in the way of the free market? I cannot believe I'm saying this, but some regulations are necessary!
- Objectivism - Huge (and irritating) fan of mine. Even when I agree with her, she's still kind of annoying.
- Feuillantism - End slavery! End the monarchy!
- Carlism - Our wars in Spain were bloody, though I admit that the Fueros sounds great.
- Right-Wing Populism - Some of you are okay but many a statist protectionists, massive mixed bag.
- Nationalism - I remember when we both overthrew the old feudal systems, but you also caused a lot of damage in recent times, so you're a mixed bag overall. No offense, but please keep an eye on your deranged children .
- Constitutional Monarchism - Tolerable unlike other members of his family. You helped me in Britain but I had to expel you from the Thirteen Colonies. No taxation without representation, bruv.
- Globalism - Economic globalization and world pacifism are based But one world government sounds like too much centralization of power I prefer competition between nation-states.
It's okay to be a tax heaven.
- World Federalism - Interesting idea, but still too much centralization.
- Liberal Autocracy - Hayek was right.
- Timocracy - I used to support you, forbidding welfare recipients from voting is a good idea.
- Welfarism - A bit less, a bit less, a bit less, etc...
- Classical Conservatism - Tool of the above.
- Anarcho-Capitalism - Moron.
- Libertarian Socialism - Life, Liberty and Property!
- Enlightened Absolutism - Ok, what the actual fuck?
- Mercantilism - We need Free Trade!
- National Conservatism - Delusional populist.
- Feudalism - Why on Earth are you attacking me all the time?
- Marxism–Leninism - He keeps calling me the "reactionary status quo" but look at me kicking monarchist ass over here!
- Reactionaryism - Why on Earth would you reject the Enlightenment!?
- Socialism - Will never work.
- Fascism - Despot who opposes free trade and liberty. Basically the opposite of everything we stand for. Why do leftists think we're the same again?
Appointing De' Stefani as the Minister of Finance was a good choice though.
- Austrofascism - Same as above but Austrian.
Though thanks for appointing Mises as the Minister of the Chamber of Commerce.
- Nazism - You tried to kill Mises!
- Corporatocracy & State Liberalism - We need to talk, my child... WHAT IN THE BLOODY HELL IS THIS?!
- Alt-Right - You're an outright Neo-Nazi, which is even worse. Stop saying that only white people and white civilizations are able to follow or be the closest to my philosophy! Go ask Reactionary Liberalism.
Please ignore what some of my authors and supporters have said about race, black people, slavs, and fascism.
- Alt-Lite - Like above but Natcon stop hijacking me!
Also ignore what some of my supporters and authors have said about inmigrants, women and Islam
- Manosphere - What do you want from me?!
MGTOW and Neomasculinism are not that bad.
- White Nationalism - Another one?! Good Lord, leave me alone!
Please don't look at what some of the founding fathers and my other supporters said about a white ethnostate.
- Silver Legionism - You're like him but American.
Also they really like Washington for some reason.
- Babouvism - The seed of the communist evil!
- Marxism - My archenemy in modern days.
- Illegalism - Own a musket for home defense, since that's what the founding fathers intended. Four ruffians break into my house. "What the devil?" As I grab my powdered wig and Kentucky rifle. Blow a golf ball sized hole through the first man, he's dead on the spot. Draw my pistol on the second man, miss him entirely because it's smoothbore and nails the neighbors dog. I have to resort to the cannon mounted at the top of the stairs loaded with grape shot, "Tally ho lads" the grape shot shreds two men in the blast, the sound and extra shrapnel set off car alarms. Fix bayonet and charge the last terrified rapscallion. He Bleeds out waiting on the police to arrive since triangular bayonet wounds are impossible to stitch up. Just as the founding fathers intended.
Note: List kept in rough chronological order.
- On the Law of War and Peace and The Freedom of the Seas by Hugo Grotius
- Areopagitica by John Milton
- Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina of 1669 by John Locke and Anthony Ashley Cooper
- Two Treatises of Government and A Letter Concerning Toleration by John Locke
- The Fable of the Bees; Or, Private Vices, Public Benefits by Bernard Mandeville
- Cato's Letters by Thomas Gordon and John Trenchard
- The Spirit of the Laws by Baron de Montesquieu
- Reflections on the Formation and Distribution of Wealth by Anne Robert Jacques Turgot
- The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith
- A Treatise Concerning Civil Government by Josiah Tucker
- Common Sense by Thomas Paine
- Rights of Man by Thomas Paine
- The Limits of State Action by Wilhelm von Humboldt
- The Liberty of Ancients Compared with that of Moderns and Principles of Politics Applicable to All Governments by Benjamin Constant
- A Treatise on Political Economy by Destutt de Tracy (and translated by Thomas Jefferson)
- A Treatise on Political Economy and Letters to Mr. Malthus by Jean-Baptiste Say
- Democracy in America by Alexis de Tocqueville
- The Bastiat Collection by Frédéric Bastiat
- Social Statics; or the Conditions Essential to Human Happiness and Principles of Ethics by Herbert Spencer
- On liberty by John Stuart Mill
- Essays on Freedom and Power by John-Dalberg Acton
- A Plea for Liberty: An Argument against Socialism and Socialistic Legislation by multiple writers
20th century and after
- Tracotanza Proteccionista by Luigi Einaudi
- Liberalism: In the Classical Tradition by Ludwig Von Mises
- The Constitution of Liberty by Friedrich August von Hayek
- Two Concepts of Liberty by Isaiah Berlin
- The Origins of Totalitarian Democracy by Jacob Leib Talmon
- Classical Liberalism: A Primer by Eamonn Butler
- What is Classical Liberalism? by Ralph Raico
- An American Classical Liberalism by Llewellin H. Rockwell Jr.
- Five False Assumptions of Liberalism and its follow-up article by Carl Benjamin
- Liberalism and Its Discontents by Francis Fukuyama
- Classical liberalism
- Classical economics
- Neoclassical economics
- Manchester Liberalism
- French Liberal School
- School of Salamanca
- Gladstonian liberalism
- Constitutional liberalism
- Homestead principle
- Labor theory of property
- Lockean proviso
- Harm principle
- John Locke
- Adam Smith
- Institute for Democracy and Economic Affairs
- Bourbon Democrat
- A Guide to Classical Liberalism and Classical Liberalism, Part 2: The Rise and Fall (and Rise and Fall) by The Academic Agent
- How Classical Liberalism became Libertarianism by Casual Historian
- What is Classical Liberalism? and The History of Classical Liberalism by Learn Liberty
- Liberalism: where did it come from and are its days numbered? by The Economist
- What is a Classical Liberal? (Animated) by The Rubin Report
- The Truth About Classical Liberalism by Martin Goldberg
- Adam's Myth: What Classical Liberalism really is? by Sprachielle
- Liberalism vs Mass Democracy by Russell Walter
- Alphabet of Classical Liberalism
- Excluding a small number of radical classical liberals.
- "On Power: The Natural History of its Growth", ch. 17, by Bertrand de Jouvenel
- Liberty or Equality by Erik von KuehneltLeddihn
- Madero believed he could communicate with the ghost of Benito Juárez
- Steven M. Dworetz (1994). The Unvarnished Doctrine: Locke, Liberalism, and the American Revolution.