Enlightenment Thought

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"The public use of a man's reason must be free at all times, and this alone can bring enlightenment among men..."

The Enlightenment was born some time in the late 17th century and is the ancestor of many, many ideologies. They are a broad ideology used to represent ideas of the Age of Enlightenment. Although their biggest contribution to the world was to give birth to Republicanism and Classical Liberalism, they also caused the separation of church and state and went against tyranny. Their ideas promoted individual liberty, progress, fraternity, and tolerance.

Enlightenment parented Classical Liberalism in the early 18th century, as the concept of the invisible hand and free-market ideas were created. Classical Liberalism was then the parent of most free-market ideologies.

Enlightenment also gave birth to the modern republican ideals who led to the creation of the Society of the Friends of the Constitution, from which originated Jacobinism, the predominant political force in the French revolution. Jacobinism later would form the basic blocks of Socialism.

Ingsoc, at some point, travelled back in time and had a child with Enlightenment. This created Illuminatism.

They also had a child with Agrarianism called Physiocracy, who would in turn become the parent of Georgism.

And, for last, at the start of the 20th century, they had a child with Austrian School, Neo-Enlightenment.




Kant's Epistemology and Metaphysics are infamously complex, so this will be a brief overview. Kant made the claim that there are three main categories through which we experience the world, Intuition, Understanding, and Reason. Intuition is sensory impressions that are given to us by objects outside our understanding. Reason is what allows us to make logical destination's based of these sensory impressions. Understanding is the facility that allows us to comprehend things without having to infer them from intuition.

According to Kant, there are certain intuitions like time and space which are indispensable to how we experience the world. They must exist a priori, or before we experience anything. But all intuitions must exist from empirical experience. Therefore, Kant argues that what we experience in the world is not the world it's self, but merely an impression of it. Therefore, what we experience Kant be the world as it is in and of it's self. Kant calls the world as it is in and of its self "Numina" and the world as we experience it "Phenomena." So then what is this "Numina" like? Who the hell knows. This leads Kant to his view of Transcendental Idealism, basically the view that, although all are ideas stem from reality, the world as it is in and of it's self remains unknowable.


The basis of Kant's ethics is that we should always act in such a way that could be made a universal law. From this, he derives that we should never use people as an means, but always as an ends in themselves. For Kant, this goes even if using someone as an ends will help prevent a greater harm to even more people.


Kant argued that in order to maintain human freedom, we must all seek a society in which it is possible to live free and rational lives. He called this state a Rechtsstaat, or a Republic governed by law. The sole purpose of this state was to maximize the possibility of human autonomy.


According to Kant, mathematics possesses objective validity because it expresses the necessary conditions of possible experience. Arithmetic, as an example, is grounded in the necessary conditions of possible experience and provides a priori cognition of objects with regard to their form. Kant believes that mathematics is a suitable tool for describing nature, but it encounters certain philosophical challenges. One such challenge arises from the notion that if something is composite, there must also exist something simple. This contradicts the concept of infinite divisibility of space, as it suggests that there are indivisible elements (atoms or monads) that constitute the universe. Kant addresses this issue by proposing that appearances are not things in themselves and that philosophical reasoning based solely on concepts would not be valid for appearances.

Another issue Kant discusses is the question of infinitely small magnitudes in mathematics. While some philosophers argue for the existence of atoms or monads, Kant separates the concepts of infinite divisibility and infinitely small magnitudes. He considers infinitely small magnitudes as necessary ideas to express changes caused by fundamental forces and the construction of intuition. Regarding the method of mathematics, Kant argues that it differs from the method of philosophy. Mathematics is capable of producing definitions in a strict sense and is considered a paradigm of synthetic cognition a priori. It uses concepts in concreto, starting with definitions and containing few unprovable propositions. Philosophy, on the other hand, analyzes data and deals with concepts in abstracto.

Kant illustrates the distinction between mathematics and philosophy through the discussion of the definition of a circle. The standard definition, which states that a circle is a figure with each point equidistant from a given center, does not prove its possibility. Kant proposes a genetic definition that demonstrates the constructability of a circle. According to Kant, mastering a mathematical concept means understanding the rule of construction of the object of the concept.


Epistemology and Metaphysics

Descartes thinks that at least once in our lives, we must doubt nearly everything we know, in order to arrive at certain knowledge. He thinks that we can doubt Nearly everything, our scenes, the existence of God, even the truth of mathematics. However, the one thing we can not doubt is that we are thinking thing that exists, or that "I think therefor I am."

From this, he argues that God must exist. Descartes defines God as a perfect being. But Descartes himself perceives that he must be an imperfect being, having believed many different contradictory things. He also perceives that either he must have come up with the idea of God, or God must have an existence outside of him, in other words, he must be real. Because a perfect thing can not come form something imperfect, God must exist.

Because God is more perfect then us, he would not allow us to be deceived, we must therefor be able to trust all clear and distinct perceptions, including our senses. Thus, our senses never lie to us, but it is only our will which fails us, in being to hasty to judge appearance to be reality.

Philosophy of Mind and Science

Descartes is dualist, who thinks the world is made up of two parts, the nonphysical world that contains things that last forever, God, human minds, ideas, the laws of mathematics and nature; and the physical world, which is made up of matter. He thinks that only humans have minds, and that animals are therefor incapable of feeling anything, including pain.

This leads to a rejection of the Aristotelian view of nature, which practices a more hylomorphic style of dualism where the mental and nonphysical are bound together much more closely, to the point of inseparability, and which believes in teleological ideas of final causes as opposed to a world run by mechanistic laws of nature.

Ethics and Political Philosophy

Descartes didn't speak often on ethics or political philosophy. In terms of ethics, this was because he wanted to have a more cretin foundation in Metaphysics before he really got started building an ethical system. He refrained from speaking on politics becuse he thought such things should be mostly dealt with by Kings and those who they appointed as magistrates.

None the less, he did have some ideas in these two subjects, tending towards a version Virtue Ethics based on File:RomSto.png Stoicism as well as viewing Template:FPCB as the natural order of things.

File:Diderot.png Diderotianism

Diderotianism is a set of theories developed by the French philosopher and writer of the Enlightenment era Denis Diderot. He is best known for being a co-founder of the first encyclopedia along with File:Alembert.png Jean-Baptiste le Rond d'Alembert Like his other contemporaries, Diderot promoted antitheism and materialism. He also developed proto-evolutionary ideas and it could be said he was the predecessor of Darwin.



Hegel claimed that everything that exists is in the process of becoming something else. He believed history itself was in the process of change, through a dialectical process of opposing ideas, through which would emerge the new synthesis of a single idea, making the old binary distinction irreverent. He thought this process would continue until finally, we arrive at the point when all subjects would realize that only one thing exists, the mind itself.

Hegel was an idealist, meaning he thought that everything that exists is a non-physical entity.

Hegelian Dialectic

In Part I of his Encyclopaedia of Philosophical Sciences, also known as the Encyclopaedia Logic, Hegel presents his dialectical method. According to Hegel, logic has three moments or sides: understanding, dialectical, and speculative. The understanding is the moment of fixity where concepts have stable definitions. The dialectical moment is one of instability and self-sublation, where concepts pass into their opposites. The speculative moment grasps the unity of the first two moments and produces a more comprehensive and universal concept. Hegel's dialectics differ from Plato's arbitrary dialectics in several ways. The movement to new determinations in Hegel's dialectics is driven by the nature of earlier determinations, not by the introduction of new ideas. The transition to new determinations grows out of the process itself and is not dependent on external factors. Later determinations both replace and preserve earlier determinations, and they determine and surpass the limits of the earlier determinations. The dialectical process leads to increasingly comprehensive and universal concepts, ultimately driving towards the Absolute, the all-encompassing concept or form. The Absolute represents the highest level of universality and completes the dialectical process. When taken together, the Absolute concepts for different subject matters form Hegel's entire philosophical system, which is characterized as a "circle of circles." Hegel considers his dialectical method to be truly scientific because it is driven by the subject matter itself and exhibits coherence and necessity.

The Phenomenology of Spirit


Hegel's philosophical perspective focuses on the stages of consciousness development. He begins with sense-certainty, which is limited because it provides only basic factual information without deeper insights. Perception is introduced as an active form of consciousness that recognizes the interconnectedness and relational nature of objects. However, the process of negation erodes specific characteristics, leading to doubt and a return to sense-certainty. Understanding is presented as the most complete form of consciousness, merging sense-certainty and perception. Hegel introduces the concept of force, which operates both in the observable world and as a pure notion. Understanding seeks to uncover the underlying principles and laws governing the actions and reactions of forces. Hegel discusses the existence of two realms, one governed by laws and another where phenomena remain unexplained. He acknowledges that earlier stages of consciousness may not have been aware of these perspectives, while he and his readers understand them as observers.


Self-consciousness arises when the mind recognizes its own thinking and existence in relation to an external world. It seeks validation and self-assertion by acknowledging the same self-consciousness in others, leading to the emergence of collective human consciousness or spirit. Hegel emphasizes that true understanding comes from collective efforts rather than isolated individuals. The process involves mutual recognition and gradual development. The paradox of dominance and servitude reveals that the servant achieves true self-consciousness through discipline and obedience, while the lord depends on recognition but denies equality. Stoicism and skepticism are explored as stages of development, with skepticism questioning true knowledge but ultimately being incoherent. The Unhappy Consciousness seeks unity with the unchangeable through surrender and mediation, leading to the next phase of reason. Hegel incorporates Christian and philosophical concepts to discuss the ascent of human consciousness, highlighting its broader relevance beyond Christianity.


Reason, for Hegel, involves actively shaping our perception of reality by discerning essential qualities and implicit laws. Observational reason, however, falls short in providing a comprehensive understanding of the world. Hegel introduces rational self-consciousness, combining reason with self-awareness in a social context. True fulfillment and individuality, he argues, are achieved when individuals align themselves with the existing social order. Individuality and self-interest play a role in human action, which exposes intentions and reveals true character. Hegel sees work as a moral imperative for self-realization and emphasizes reason operating within collective consciousness and societal laws.


Spirit, in Hegel's view, is the collective consciousness and morality that connects all humans. The ethical order, represented by societal laws and norms, embodies the true spirit and reflects both human and divine aspects. The family represents the natural ethical community, while the government embodies the implementation of human law. Human actions often create a conflict between divine and human law, leading to a society characterized by individualism and the erosion of ethical customs. Hegel also discusses the Enlightenment and its impact on the division between culture and faith, with one pole emphasizing divine law and the other emphasizing human utilitarianism.


In his exploration of the progress of spirit, Hegel identifies the concept of the "absolute" or divine being. He suggests that the absolute is fully revealed in the current stage of development. Hegel traces the previous appearances of the absolute, highlighting how religion plays a crucial role in achieving self-consciousness. Religion evolves through stages such as natural religion, perceiving spirituality in nature, and the stage of art, where religion becomes an expression of ethics detached from nature. Hegel focuses on the development of religion as art, particularly referencing ancient Greek religions. He discusses the transition from abstract statues to the humanization of gods in epics. Hegel introduces the idea of revealed religion, exemplified by File:Christheo.png Christianity, where God becomes incarnate. He emphasizes the significance of God's presence in the physical world and the shared experience of Christ's existence. Hegel views religion's development through visual imagery, with each stage representing a different aspect of human self-consciousness. He argues that evil stems from the same impulse as good and is a result of self-consciousness. Ultimately, Hegel asserts that spirit finds its culmination in the human conscience, where God is internalized.

Absolute Knowing

Hegel argues that revealed religions, including Christianity, rely on symbolic representations rather than achieving genuine self-consciousness. He revisits the progression of human spirit from sense-certainty to religion, asserting that spirit must surpass religion and manifest its principles in human actions. Hegel terms this stage as systematic science, a pure understanding of the self attained through struggle and development. He emphasizes that systematic science must observe the development of spirit within specific contexts, making it a work of history.

Science of Logic

Hegel believed that logic is the form taken by the science of thinking and that existing approaches to logic needed a radical reformulation. He criticized the separation between the content and form of cognition, which created a gap between subject and object. Hegel aimed to bridge this gap by integrating content and form within the science of logic itself. He believed that he had achieved this integration in his work, the Phenomenology of Spirit, through the concept of Absolute Knowing, where subject and object are united, and truth is equated with certainty. Hegel referred to this File:PostDual.png Post-Dualist form of consciousness as "Begriff," representing the self-contained nature of thought. His goal in the Science of Logic was to overcome the separation between subject and object, providing a comprehensive framework for understanding rational thought and truth. By integrating these elements, Hegel sought to establish a self-contained system reflecting the eternal essence of God before the creation of nature and finite minds.

Philosophy of the Real

Hegel emphasizes that philosophy comes after the completion of actuality and serves to reconstruct and grasp the real world in its intellectual realm. He uses the metaphor of "gray in gray" to illustrate that philosophy recognizes and interprets an already existing shape of life that has aged and cannot be rejuvenated. Philosophy is not meant to dictate how the world should be but to comprehend it as it is. Hegel's concept of actuality suggests that reality is a continuous process, always in a state of preparedness rather than being definitively completed. The relationship between the logical and real-philosophical parts of his system is that philosophy, as the thought and knowledge of the substantial spirit of its time, makes that spirit its object. Hegel's aim is to uncover the systematically coherent logical form within the material of nature and history, presenting it in a scientific manner.

Unfolding of Species

Hegel presents a sequential development from inanimate objects to animate creatures and ultimately to human beings. While this progression has been compared to the Darwinian theory of evolution, Hegel's perspective differs in that he believed organisms possess agency and actively participate in the process. In contrast to Darwin's view of natural selection, Hegel saw organisms as making choices and collaborating with others to advance along this developmental path. According to Hegel, this progression follows a predetermined trajectory, leading towards a teleological end that represents the ultimate purpose and destiny of this natural development.


Hegel thought that the state could transcend the limits of the individual mind to form a higher mode of being, based in the national spirit, and a nations constitution.


Montesquieuism is a collection of theories made by the Enlightenment era French philosopher Charles Louis Montesquieu (18 January 1689 – 10 February 1755). He is most famous for his political theories where he states the 3 systems of government power: legislature, executive, and judiciary. Montesquieu claims 3 types of government:


Natural state

Rousseauism Argues that the state in human development associated with what he called "Savages" were the best and optimal state. In this original condition, humans have no moral relations or determinate obligations to one another, because or the rarity of contact between groups, differences would have little significance, and no existence of things such as private property or conflict, and all are perfectly equal.

He thinks that humans have two things in common with animals: self preservation and empathy. While he does not think that humans are better than other species, he does think that humans are able to change their ways from the natural state in a way that other species can't.

Republicanism and democracy

Rousseauism believes that sovereignity should be in the hands of the people (including women), ideally decided by direct democracy, and should preside over the government. He thinks this can only be in practice in small places, ideally a city state. The social contract is to agree to this general will of the people.


He believes property is the source of all inequality, and thus believes it should be restricted to only those who have found land first which is not occupied.


“We should not teach children the sciences; but give them a taste for them.”


The philosophy of Sade, known as sadism, revolves around the idea of total freedom and individual pleasure without moral constraints. Sade advocated for the pursuit of personal pleasure, even at the expense of others, without concern for social or moral norms. He believed in absolute freedom to satisfy sexual desires and cruelty without limits, challenging the moral conventions of his time. His literary work explores these ideas through characters who exercise unrestricted power over others to fulfill their own pleasure.


Theory of Substance

For Spinoza, Substance underlies our experience, but it can also be known by its various attributes. He does not specify how many attributes substance has, but he says that human beings, at least, can conceive of two — namely, the attribute of extension (physicality) and the attribute of thought (mentality). For this reason, Spinoza is also known as an “attribute dualist”, and he claims that these two attributes cannot be explained by each other, and so must be included in any complete account of the world.

Panentheism File:PanRational.png

Spinoza’s theory is often referred to as a form of panentheism — the belief that God is everything (and beyond), and that everything (and beyond) is God. In Spinoza’s system, the world is not a mass of material and mental stuff — rather, the world of material things is a form of God as conceived under the attribute of extension, and the world of mental things is that same form of God as conceived under the attribute of thought.

Spinoza, influenced by René Descartes, accepted the File:Ontology.png ontological argument. He set out on rationalism and said that God is the most perfect being. Spinoza saw God as File:Infinity.png infinite and thought that there was no other being that could be absolutely File:Infinity.png infinite.

In his book Ethics, he adopted theory of substance to the philosophy of religion. Spinoza argued that, God has the same qualities as the substance that provides existence of universe. Knowledge of nature, which is necessary and non-contingent, was given as a method for understanding God's creation.


Voltaire perceived the French bourgeoisie to be too small and ineffective, the aristocracy to be parasitic and corrupt, the commoners as ignorant and superstitious, and the Church as a static and oppressive force useful only on occasion as a counterbalance to the rapacity of kings, although all too often, even more rapacious itself. Voltaire distrusted democracy, which he saw as propagating the idiocy of the masses. Voltaire long thought only an enlightened monarch could bring about change, given the social structures of the time and the extremely high rates of illiteracy, and that it was in the king's rational interest to improve the education and welfare of his subjects. But his disappointments and disillusions with Frederick the Great changed his philosophy somewhat, and soon gave birth to one of his most enduring works, his novella Candide, ou l'Optimisme (Candide, or Optimism, 1759), which ends with a new conclusion of quietism: "It is up to us to cultivate our garden." His most polemical and ferocious attacks on intolerance and religious persecutions indeed began to appear a few years later. Candide was also burned, and Voltaire jokingly claimed the actual author was a certain 'Demad' in a letter, where he reaffirmed the main polemical stances of the text.





Tchi Ho Yun Thought

Tchi Ho Yun (also known as Chi-ho Yun) was a korean enlightenment activist. He once studied in America but was disillusioned due to Anti-Asian Racism in America and became racial nationalist. He hated communist movement arguing that Korean Bolshevism glorifies robbery. Despite his hatred towards patriarchy and sexism, he still hated feminism as much as socialism. Although he once supported Mussolini, he hated Hitler and the nazis, saying that 'Hitler changes everything he touches into hell' and even called him 'Hell Hitler'.

Personality and Behaviour

Enlightenment within the comics is usually portrayed as a stereotypical enlightened thinker.

How to Draw

An Enlightenment wig is an encouraged accessory

Candle Design

Flag of Enlightenment Thought (Candle design)
  1. Draw a ball with eyes
  2. Draw a candle handle
  3. Draw a candle which is glowing on the handle

And you're done

Color Name HEX RGB
White #FFFFFF 255, 255, 255
Yellow #FFF200 255, 242, 0
Red #ED131F 237, 19, 31
Black #141414 20, 20, 20
Grey #5A5A5A 90, 90, 90
Light Grey #C4C4C4 196, 196, 196



Gray Area

  • Neo-Enlightenment - Listen, I like your dedication to my values and ideas but stop acting like you're the same as me.
  • Revolutionary Progressivism - Calm down a little buddy.
  • Illuminatism - Goddamn oligarch totalitarian, you're everything we set out to destroy. W-W-Weishaupt?
  • State Liberalism - ...what the hell ARE you?! Progress is good but you're even more insane than him and that's saying something.
  • Traditionalism - You aren't that bad but you have to embrace more empiricism and rationalism instead of past dogmatism.
  • Conservatism - You need to stick less to tradition.
  • Classical Conservatism - Father of above, an old rival but you're more tolerable and reasonable than compared other anti-illuminists especially nowadays .
  • Paleoconservatism - American version of above, we both like the foundation of his country but he sometimes can become a reactard lolcow.
  • National Conservatism - I like that you embrace people's sovereignty and nation-state but you need to calm down sometimes.
  • Reactionary Liberalism, Reactionary Libertarianism, Hoppeanism & Korwinism - WTF? Unless I can still work with them, plus Thermidorians are good.
  • Neoreactionaryism - I don't know what to think of you. You call yourself a reactionary, but you still support my children .
  • Feuillantism - Nice try but too tame and slavery is horrible.
  • Posadism - Destroying all old things with explosives around the globe for better future? Well... Good luck with that.

Left in the dark

  • Counter-Enlightenment - OW, you darkness, you dark, midnight, evil motherf***er, OW, dark ages, darkness! You're all darkness, you're f***ing delirious motherf***er, OW!
  • Reactionaryism - You're not getting rid of my ideas that easily.
  • Reactionary Modernism - WHAT, NO! WHY! Nooooo technology and reactionary thought are incompatible!!! You also need to see the light in a literal way.
  • Feudalism - Lol feudalism is no more.
  • Mercantilism - Same for you except for your modern version which is my great-great-grandson?
  • Absolute Monarchism - One of my biggest enemies.
  • Frankfurt School - Oh come on! I am not a totalitarian!
  • Carlism - Bites the dust! Oh wait...
  • Black Hundredism - Another one bites the dust! Oh wait again...
  • Integralism - Get real, dude, your time is over.
    • Every day the society of today gets worse for the average man, the closer you are to death. Cease peddling false light.
  • Ilminism - Illuminism, not Ilminism!
    • Hey, it's not my fault that my name is Ilminism in English!

Further Information



  • Pierre Gassendi and the Birth of Early Modern Philosophy by Pierre Gassendi (1655)
  • Maxims by François de La Rochefoucauld (1662)
  • Pensees by Blaise Pascal (1670)
  • Some Considerations of the Consequences of the Lowering of Interest and the Raising the Value of Money by John Locke (1691)
  • Discourses Concerning Government by Algernon Sidney (1698)
  • The Fable of the Bees; Or, Private Vices, Public Benefits by Bernard Mandeville (1714)
  • Philosophical Selections by Nicolas Malebranche (1715)
  • Cato's Letters by John Trenchard and Thomas Gordon (1720)
  • The New Science by Giambattista Vico (1725)
  • An Inquiry into the Original of Our Ideas of Beauty and Virtue by Francis Hutcheson (1725)
  • An Essay on the Nature and Conduct of the Passions and Affections, with Illustrations on the Moral Sense by Francis Hutcheson (1728)
  • Letters Concerning the English by Voltaire (1734)
  • Machine Man and Other Writings by Julien Offray de La Mettrie (1747)
  • The Spirit of the Laws by Baron de Montesquieu (1748)
  • The Law of Nations Treated According to the Scientific Method by Christian Wolff (1754)
  • A System of Moral Philosophy by Francis Hutcheson (1755)
  • An Essay on Economic Theory: Essay on the Nature of Trade in General by Richard Cantillon (1755)
  • A Review of the Principal Questions in Morals by Richard Price (1758)
  • De L'esprit, Or, Essays On the Mind, and Its Several Faculties by Claude Adrien Helvétius (1758)
  • Essays: Moral, Political and Literary by David Hume (1758)
  • Christianity Unveiled by Baron d'Holbach (1761)
  • Lectures on Justice, Police, Revenue and Arms by Adam Smith (1763)
  • Classical Republican in Eighteenth-Century France by Gabriel Bonnot de Mably (1763)
  • Philosophical Dictionary by Voltaire (1764)
  • On Crimes and Punishments by Cesare Beccaria (1764)
  • An Essay on the History of Civil Society by Adam Ferguson (1767)
  • An Essay on the First Principles of Government, and on the Nature of Political, Civil, and Religious Liberty by Joseph Priestley (1768)
  • The Sacred Contagion: The Natural History of Superstition by Baron d'Holbach (1768)
  • System of Nature by Baron d'Holbach (1770)
  • Good Sense Without God: The Revolutionary Treatise on Free Thought by Baron d'Holbach (1772)
  • Encyclopedic Liberty by Denis Diderot, Henry C. Clark, and Jean le Rond d'Alembert (1751-1772)
  • Commerce and Government: Considered in Their Mutual Relationship by Étienne Bonnot de Condillac (1776)
  • A Treatise Concerning Civil Government by Josiah Tucker (1781)
  • Dangerous Liaisons by Pierre Choderlos De Laclos (1782)
  • Political Writings by Denis Diderot (1784)
  • Aline and Valcour, Vol. 1: or, the Philosophical Novel by Marquis de Sade (1788)
  • Aline and Valcour, Vol. 2: or, the Philosophical Novel by Marquis de Sade (1788)
  • Aline and Valcour, Vol. 3: or, the Philosophical Novel by Marquis de Sade (1788)
  • Mary Wollstonecraft Philosophical and Political Writings Collection by Mary Wollstonecraft (1797)
  • Condorcet: Political Writings by Nicolas de Condorcet (1788-1794)
  • Answering the Question: What Is Enlightenment? by Immanuel Kant (1784)
  • Logic by Immanuel Kant and Gottlob Benjamin Jäsche (1800)
  • Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and Sublime and Other Writings by Immanuel Kant (1764)
  • Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View by Immanuel Kant (1798)
  • Lectures and Drafts on Political Philosophy by Immanuel Kant (1799)
  • Kant’s Critical Philosophy: The Doctrine of the Faculties by Gilles Deleuze (1967)
  • Kant and Political Philosophy: The Contemporary Legacy by Ronald Beiner and William James Booth (1993)
  • Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment by Alan Charles Kors (1815)


  1. Around the time Sade left prison, all titles of nobility were abolished.