Brazilian Integralism

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Brazilian Integralism is an authoritarian, culturally right-wing and economically ambiguous ideology.

Brazilian Integralism broadly believes there should be "a fully integrated social and political order, based on converging patrimonial (inherited) political, cultural, religious, and national traditions of a particular state." While Integralism refers to a broad set of movements, which vary from nation to nation, this article is specifically about the Brazilian interpretation of it. He is not fascism in the way it's commonly understood, but is "paleo-fascist," to be more accurate. While fascism supports the creation of corporations dependent on the state, integralism wants to create organic and independent ones, not interfering in anyone's jobs or companies.

While fascists believe that the state is the end, integralists think that the state is the beginning, the human being is the means, and reaching God is the end. They believe that the only God is Jesus and that the leader is not the personification of the state but only a normal person in a position of power; for this reason, they do not support cults of personality.


Anti semitism

Barroso wrote that he did not agree with Hitler's anti-Semitism and justified his attacks on Jews with an alleged fight against racism. As he himself put it:

"Sooner or later, according to their inveterate custom, the Jews will pull their sleeves out and then it will be seen who is right. What is happening between us is happening more or less everywhere, except in Germany, where the nation is aware of the problem. In our opinion, Hitler makes a mistake, however, in his anti-Jewish campaign. He fights Jews in the name of Aryan racism. Now, since the Jew is the greatest of all racists, it is not possible to combat him with another racism, but only with an anti-racism. What must be fought is precisely Jewish racism. In the name of Christian principles that preach the equality of all human beings, we fight the people who declare themselves ELECTED and SUPERIOR" [8]

And in his book he wrote:

Among US, anti-Semitism cannot come from a racist feeling, because the Brazilian is eminently opposed to any racism; however, give it exactly anti-racist meaning. What brings the world in the current continuous shocks, undermined by revolutionism and terrorism, and precisely Jewish racism. The Jew does not mix with other peoples, maintains through the centuries the purity of his race, and, within other nations, grounded in racism, retains his nationality as a state within a state.


According to integralist corporate theory, unions must become bodies governed by public law. As a rule, collective labor agreements must be established with capital organizations . However, workers can also join private unions, whose collective contracts will only have value between their signatories. Only contracts made between public law unions, therefore, are laws for the entire category.

For the recognition of a union, however, it would be necessary for certain conditions to be met: that it brings together a certain defined percentage of elements of the profession or category; that proposes the purpose of protecting the economic interests, assistance, instruction and moral and national education of its subscribers; that does not have dependent links with international or foreign organizations; and "that its leaders have good conduct and competence".

The functions of each union must be categorized into four: political function (through which it is responsible for freely appointing representatives to the Municipal Council, the Provincial Economic Councils and the National Corporate Chamber), economic (through the stipulation of collective contracts and participation of its superior bodies in solving national economic problems), cultural (due to the duty imposed on them to take care of the culture of their members, maintaining, among others, schools, libraries and technical courses, in addition to cooperation in the creation of rest camps, fun and sport) and moral (according to the principle of seeking to resolve conflicts arising in production within a spirit of cooperation and mutual assistance).

Above the Unions, on a national scale, Corporations would be organized, divided by cycle and branch of production and organizing bosses, employees and technicians from the same sector. Political life, in an integralist regime, would be coordinated corporately, through the elections of Unions to the Municipal Council, of Federations to the Provincial Council and of Corporations to the National Corporate Chamber.

Integral Man

Plínio Salgado developed the theory of the "integral man", the foundation of all his political thought. The integral man is the embodied union of body and soul, whose behavior is the result of a triple matrix, presenting himself as a civic, economic and spiritual being.  Repudiating the pure concept of "individual", purely distinctive, integralism sees man as a "person", that is, a "conscious, volitional and independent" being. Man has a relative power of creation and interference, subordinate to the world and its eternal regency. In fact, this is how Plínio Salgado defined it on Man in the International Catholic Conversations of San Sebastian in 1948: "Man is a being made by image and likeness of God, his Creator, possessing a spiritual and immortal soul, endowed with intelligence and free will. He must find in civil society the means of fulfilling his duties and exercising his correlative rights, in accordance with the purposes of his nature and his divine vocation."

Plínio Salgado opposes materialist worldviews, with the latter considering human life as a purely earthly phenomenon.


The Nation, within the Integralist concept, is "a large society of families, living in a given territory, under the same government, under the impression of the same historical traditions and with the same aspirations and purposes".

Plínio Salgado defines nationalism as: "Nationalism is an intimate understanding of the social environment and the cosmic environment. Nationalism is the total vision of the country and is, at the same time, the particular consciousness of each character and each tendency, of each mode of seeing, feeling, being, resolving, aspiring, working and living of isolated individuals and populations united under the empire of a form of economic activity, a geographical circumstance and a moral feature". According to him, at another time, nationalism is "the maintenance of the integrity of the Fatherland".

The Integralist Doctrine aggressively rejects cosmopolitanism , which it understands as anti-national customs rooted in a bourgeois civilization installed in Brazil. As written in the founding document of the Brazilian Integralist Action, the October Manifesto, in its chapter "Our nationalism" : " Cosmopolitanism, that is, foreign influence, is a deadly evil for our Nationalism. Fighting it is the our duty. And this does not mean ill will towards friendly Nations, towards the children of other countries, who also work here aiming at the aggrandizement of the Brazilian Nation and whose descendants are integrated into our own life as a people. We refer to the customs, which are rooted, mainly in our bourgeoisie, enraptured by this civilization that is on the rocks in Europe and the United States . [...] Nationalism for us is not just the cult of the Flag and the National Anthem ; it is the deep consciousness of our needs, the character, tendencies, aspirations of the country and the value of a people. This is a great campaign that we are going to undertake".

For Gustavo Barroso, Integralism aims for Brazil-Integral , where the State and the Nation blend into an indissoluble whole. For him, the Nation and the State must integrate, merging with the same identity and for the same purposes. Once the State identifies itself with the soul of a Nation, it would have the right and authority to intervene in the economic, social, political and financial fields, "reestablishing balances, whenever some elements of society hypertrophy to the detriment From others". This is the basis for the structuring of the Corporate State, which aims to serve as the synthesis between the State and the Nation. Integralist nationalism, therefore, bases sovereignty on the Nation, opposing any circles that override central authority.

Integralism see individual interests secondary to national interests as a principle to build "the greatness of the Brazilian Homeland". In the Integralist Manual , it is justified that "if the Nation is not strong enough, the individual's own integrity will not be guaranteed, so that the Individual, submitting himself to the supreme national interests, does no more than defend their own intangibility". As Plínio Salgado writes, "there is no interest that surpasses the interests of the Nation. Neither municipal interests, nor state interests, nor the interests of classes, nor the interests of individuals. Above all, the Nation. For It is because of this that the integral principles on which all the interests of individuals, classes, municipalities and States are based remain intangible, in their aspiration, in their natural evolution towards practical reality." According to Gustavo Barroso, nationalism is "the fair predominance of national interests".

Right Internationalism

Plínio Salgado described how nations at the time closed in on themselves, restoring their internal authority, to allow the realization of a future "ethical internationalism". In another article, he sought solutions to "impose a rhythm of relations between countries, so that they can all prosper, exchanging excess production for excess production of goods from other climates", through a "universal criterion". This problem was presented within the idea expressed by him that "the solution to the problems of each nation depends directly on the solution of the unique problem of all nations". During this period, he advocated for the union of all South American nations, even defending that "it is preferable for all South American nations to disappear with honor rather than for us to continue to live classified as semi-colonial countries ".

The State

The integral conception of the State, in addition to the conception of forms , also conceives the movement, which Plínio Salgado allows himself to call the "State that renews itself" and the "revolutionary State". Integralism denies a conception of a "stagnant society", thus placing itself in defense of a dynamic State that follows social movements. Within this thought, it advocates distinguishing the permanent and immutable purposes of the State and its dependence on the social organism with regard to its practical activity. It therefore classifies "immutable values ​​and transitory values", in a State "with a prefixed purpose, however, with revolutionary plasticity". Furthermore, it invokes the right of revolutions for the State "to destroy all factors that threaten situations of imbalance that threaten the intangibility of Man" .

Plínio Salgado argued that the authority of the State is neither superior nor inferior to other social and national values, containing within itself a different value, "an element of a different nature that enters into the composition of social and human harmonies". It would be up to the Integral State to maintain integrity in each of these human expressions, which include the family, the corporation, the municipality, the economy and religion, without entering into the proper domains of each of them.


Plínio Salgado was born on 22nd January 1895, in the small town of São Bento do Sapucaí, São Paulo, Brazil. During his childhood, he had lived with his father Francisco das Chagas Salgado, a local political leader, his mother Ana Francisca Rennó Cortez, who worked as a teacher and his grandfather Manuel Esteves da Costa, who was the son of a supporter of King Miguel I during the Portuguese Civil War (1832-1834). Plínio Salgado was a very active child at school; he developed a taste for mathematics and geometry. But, in 1911, his father died, which turned Plínio Salgado into a bitter young man. Later in his life, his interests shifted towards psychology and philosophy.

In 1915, Plínio Salgado founded a weekly newspaper called Correio de São Bento. In 1918, he began his political career by participating in the founding of a municipalist party, in which town leaders from municipalities in the Paraíba Valley region advocated for more autonomy. In the same year, Plínio Salgado married Maria Amélia Pereira. On July 6th, 1919, his daughter was born; however, to his dismay, she died fifteen days later. Salgado filled himself with sorrow, so he left his philosophy studies and found comfort in Catholic theology. He began to study the works of Brazilian Catholic thinkers such as Raimundo Farias Brito and Jackson Figueiredo.

Due to the fame of his newspaper, Plínio became known by fellow journalists and got invited to work for the Correio Paulistano, which supported the São Paulo Republican Party (PRP). Plínio Salgado became a prominent participant in the Modern Art Week of 1922, in which nationalist artists united to create pure Brazilian art pieces. In 1924, he left the Correio Paulistano to employ himself in the law firm of Alfredo Egídio de Sousa Aranha, a lawyer, businessman, and banker.

In 1926, Plínio Salgado published his first book called "The Stranger." After that, he got help from his fellow journalist friend Cassiano Ricardo to create the Movimento Verde-Amarelo ("Green-Yellow Movement"), an ufanist and nativist literary movement inside the Brazilian modernist trend. In 1927, the MVA transformed into the Escola da Anta ("Tapir School"), which idolized the Tupi people as the truest carriers of the Brazilian identity. In the same year, he published another book called "Literature and Politics" which contains anti-liberal and pro-agrarian ideas. In 1928, He was elected state deputy in São Paulo by the PRP and, in 1930, he supported the presidential candidacy of Júlio Prestes against Getúlio Vargas. During this period, he traveled to Europe and became impressed with Benito Mussolini and the Italian fascist government.

Plínio Salgado returned to Brazil on October 4th, 1930, during the Brazilian Revolution that deposed president Washington Luís and instituted Vargas' dictatorship. He wrote two articles in Correio Paulistano defending Washington but supported Getúlio Vargas later instead. In June 1931, Salgado becamed the editor of another newspaper called A Razão ("The Reason"), in which he created an intense campaign against the constitutionalist movement. It drew the ire of its activists; just before the Constitutionalist Revolution of 1932, they had burned his office down. In February 1932, Salgado founded the Society for Political Studies, which gathered intellectuals who were fascist sympathetics. Months later, he released the October Manifesto (not the Russian one), which presented the guidelines for the foundation of his new political party.

On October 7th, 1932, Plínio Salgado founded the Brazilian Integralist Action (AIB). Its members greeted each other by saying the Tupi word "Anauê!", which translates into "you are my brother," with the arm and hand outstretched similar to Mussolini's blackshirts and Hitler's brownshirts. In February 1934, at the 1st Integralist Congress in Vitória, Espírito Santo, Salgado confirmed his absolute authority over the newly founded entity and received the title of "National Head" of the party. Then, in the same year, the integralists started to target Luiz Carlos Prestes' Brazilian Communist Party (PCB) and the Communist Party of Brazil (PCdoB).

The Brazilian Integralist Action was vehemently opposed to communism and economic liberalism. To Plínio Salgado, these two ideas are equally materialistic doctrines since they have the same theoretical origins. He explains that the bourgeoisie is not a class but a state of mind, that the socialist idea promotes atheism and the abolition of the family, and that a strict bourgeois spirit is necessary to fully embrace communism, something that contradicts the ideology in its core. Salgado also explains that economic liberalism leads to humanity being ruled by drug cartels or large corporations, while communism leads to the rule of a global dictatorship resulting from a proletariat revolution.

How to Draw

Flag of Brazilian Integralism

Drawing Brazilian Integralism is very easy:

  1. Draw a ball with eyes;
  2. Fill it with blue;
  3. Carve out a white circle in the middle and fill it with white;
  4. In the white circle draw a black Sigma (Σ) symbol;
  5. You're done!
Color Name HEX RGB
Blue #2020E0 32, 32, 224
White #FFFFFF 255, 255, 255
Black #1A1A1A 26, 26, 26



  • Salazarism - Oh yes my dear portuga brother, keep protecting the empire from godlessness!
  • Clerical Fascism - Basically a more extreme versão of myself.
  • Stratocracy - Ah yes... back when Brazil was based. He gave some of my fellas a seat in his government back then, and frankly enough, he best suited my interests. I miss you.
  • Integralism - My main inspiration.
  • Caudillismo - Plinio Salgado was the guide Brasil needed.
  • Bolsonarism - Look, I don't like democracy, but you have to be the best Brazilian presidente for this modern day! I like how you're protecting our national culture and stopping comunas from taking over the government. Just stop bootlicking them...
  • Khomeinism - Clean up the Zionists, my friend.
  • Carneirism - NOSSO NOME É ENEAS!


  • Getulism - You're cool and all, but why did you have to purge me?!?!?!
  • Monarchism - Some of my followers like you while others dont mind you.
  • Fascism - I am not you.


Further Information