Jacobitism

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Not to be confused with Jacobinism.

Jacobitism is a religious, monarchist and authoritarian ideology based on the ideas after of the Glorious Revolution of 1688 (Mainly supporters for the senior line of the Stuarts).

The main doctrines of Jacobitism are the Divine Right of Kings, Anti-Unionism and that the king can not be deposed no matter what. Though the ideology varied throughout the UK. For example: In Ireland it meant tolerance for Catholics, as well as autonomy (Which James Francis Edward Stuart opposed). Jacobites also believed that Absolute and Arbitrary powers are separate and that the king must use his powers, ordained by the oath to God himself, to benefit the people and to provide law and justice.

History

After King James II and VII of England and Scotland converted to Catholicism, although the monarch was generally speaking popular, unrest started growing, because most of England was a Protestant country. However, the peeople remained loyal until 1688, when King James gave birth to a son, who was raised a Catholic. Up until this point, the claimant to the throne was Princess Mary, who was a devout Protestant, and the people of England knew they would get a Protestant queen after the death of James. However, the birth of a Catholic son raised concerns that a fully Catholic dynasty would sit in London. Therefore, three months after the birth of the son of James, who was also called James, the English people started a revolution, deposing James and his son, and instating Mary and her husband, the Dutch Prince of Orange as the king of England and Scotland. However, the Stuarts did not surrender. The Jacobites (from latin Iacobus, which means Jacob), started numerous plots to restore the line of succession. The Scottish Parliament nearly passed an act that enabled them to choose their own king, which would have led to the separation of the two Kingdoms, but the English Parliament quickly passed the Act of Union, which merged the two kingdoms into the Kingdom of Great Britain. The Jacobites started a revolt in 1715 as well, under James, the son of James II and VII and the reason for this entire mess, though it failed after initial limited successes in Scotland. However, the closest it got to the Jacobites restoring the Stuarts was in 1745. Then, Britain was at war with most of Europe in the War of Austrian Succession. The son of James, who was known as the Old Pretender, Charles, known as Bonnie Prince Charlie, landed in Moidart and raised the Jacobite flag. Many of the Highland clans joined him, hoping to restore their independence. With the new and reformed Jacobite army, Bonnie Prince Charlie defeated an english force at Prestopans, and started marching on London. They got to but five days from the city, but a Williamite spy told them of an army between them and London. Upon hearing the news, the Jacobite Army retreated back to Scotland, where they met a massive British force at Bannockburn. There, the Jacobites were defeated, the Army scattered, and the Prince escaping through the isles of Scotland and Moidart to France. After 1745, heavy repressions against Catholics and the Scottish clans ensued. The Scottish culture was suppressed and the Catholics of England and Scotland were sometimes brutally massacred. In the 1880s and 1890s there was a brief revival which led to multiple clubs and societies forming, but ended after the first World War started because the Jacobite heir at the time, Maria Theresa of Austria-Este was queen consort of Bavaria at the time which was part of the German Empire and her son Rupprecht, later known to the Jacobites as Robert I and IV, was a German Field Marshall in WWI, though in the summer of 1934 he did have a lunch with his distant cousin George V where he confessed to him that he consider Hitler to be insane.

Due to differing laws of succession between Bavaria and the Jacobites, the Jacobite claimant will soon be Sophie who is the Hereditary Princess of Liechtenstein with the Bavarian claimantship going to Prince Luitpold. Unless if the rules of succession to the Bavarian throne are change which will enable us to have a United Kingdom of Great Britain, Northern Ireland, Bavaria and Liechtenstein.

Beliefs

Historian Frank McLynn identifies seven primary drivers in Jacobitism, noting that while the movement contained "sincere men [..] who aimed solely to restore the Stuarts", it "provided a source of legitimacy for political dissent of all kinds". Establishing the ideology of active participants is complicated by the fact that "by and large, those who wrote most did not act, and those who acted wrote little, if anything." Later historians have characterised Jacobitism in a variety of ways, including as a revolutionary extension of anti-court ideology; an aristocratic reaction against a growth in executive power; feudal opposition to the growth of capitalism; or as a product of nationalist feeling in Scotland and Ireland.

Jacobitism's main ideological tenets drew on a political theology shared by Non-juring High church Anglicans and Scots Episcopalians. They were, firstly, the divine right of kings, their accountability to God, not man or Parliament; secondly that monarchy was a divine institution; thirdly, the crown's descent by indefeasible hereditary right, which could not be overturned or annulled; and lastly the scriptural injunction of passive obedience and non-resistance, even towards monarchs of which the individual subject might disapprove.

Jacobite propagandists argued such divinely sanctioned authority was the main moral safeguard of society, while its absence led to party strife. They claimed the 1688 Revolution had allowed self-interested minorities, such as Whigs, religious dissenters, and foreigners, to take control of the state and oppress the common people. However, views on the 'correct' balance of rights and duties between monarch and subject varied, and Jacobites attempted to distinguish between 'arbitrary' and 'absolute' power. Non-juring Church of Ireland clergyman Charles Leslie was perhaps the most extreme divine right theorist, but even he argued the monarch was bound by "his oath to God, as well as his promise to his people" and "the laws of justice and honour". Another common theme in Jacobite pamphlets was the implication that economic or other upheavals in the British Isles were punishment for ejecting a divinely appointed monarch, although after 1710, pamphlet writers instead began blaming the "malevolent" Whig political party for exiling the Stuarts, rather than the nation collectively.

Such sentiments were not always consistently held within the Jacobite community, or restricted to Jacobites alone: many Whigs and Church of England clergy also argued the post 1688 succession was "divinely ordained". After the Act of Settlement, Jacobite propagandists deemphasised the purely legitimist elements in their writing and by 1745, active promotion of hereditary and indefeasible right was restricted largely to a few Scots Episcopalians such as Lords Pitsligo and Balmerino.

Instead they began to focus on populist themes such as opposition to a standing army, electoral corruption and social injustice. By the 1750s, Charles himself promised triennial parliaments, disbanding the army and legal guarantees on freedom of the press. Such tactics broadened their appeal but also carried risks, since they could always be undercut by a government prepared to offer similar concessions. The ongoing Stuart focus on England and regaining a united British throne led to tensions with their broader-based supporters in 1745, when the primary goal of most Scots Jacobites was ending the 1707 Union. This meant that following victory at Prestonpans in September, they preferred to negotiate, rather than invade England as Charles wanted.

More generally, Jacobite theorists reflected a broader conservative current in Enlightenment thought, appealing to those attracted to a monarchist solution to perceived modern decadence. Populist songs and tracts presented the Stuarts as capable of correcting a wide range of ills and restoring social harmony, as well as contrasting Dutch and Hanoverian "foreigners" with a man who even in exile continued to consume English beef and beer. While particularly calculated to appeal to Tories, the wide range of themes adopted by Jacobite pamphleteers and agents periodically drew in disaffected Whigs and former radicals. Such "Whig-Jacobites" were highly valued by the exiled court, although many viewed James II as a potentially weak king from whom it would be easy to extract concessions in the event of a restoration.

Personality

Speaks in the Scots language (or some form of Scottish English), and acts like a stereotypical Scot. He tends to be socially conservative and is a diehard believer in the divine right of kings. He is also Catholic and likes parties, but is absolutely fierce in battle. Plays the bagpipes well.

How to Draw

Flag of Jacobitism
  1. Draw a red ball
  2. Draw a white flower
  3. Draw a yellow circle in the center of the flower
  4. Draw five green leaves around the flower
  5. Draw a blue outline in the rim
Color Name HEX RGB
Red #CE1437 206, 20, 55
White #FFFFFF 255, 255, 255
Yellow #F3C702 243, 199, 2
Green #529423 82, 148, 35
Blue #373971 55, 57, 113


Relationships

Friends

  • Catholic Theocracy - Aye mate, tisth ese sumthaing d’hat ei luv’th. (Aye mate, this is something that I love)
  • Monarchism - All hayl Bonni Prens Chairlie! (All hail Bonnie Prince Charlie!)
  • Neoreactionaryism - Ohhhhh a fan of maine, ai laique yeer blog. (Ohhhhh a fan of mine, I like your blog.)
  • Carlism - We baith rammy fur oor legitimate heir 'n' he git yin o' his claimants oan his throne. Ne'er mynd th' fact oor laws o' succession ur totally different 'n' ah ainlie hae yin hier 'n' nae lik' 15 claimants. (We both fight for our Legitimate heir and he got one of his claimants on his throne. Never mind the fact our laws of succession are totally different and I only have one hier and not like 15 claimants.)

Frenemies

  • British Fascism - Ahprreshiat’th Tahe autthemphtant laddie, beut yeee nevur raelly jot sohmewehar. (Appreciate the attempt lad, but you never really got somewhere.)
  • Germanophobia - Keek, th' hail na germans oan th' throne wis juist rhetoric, an' a' howfur wis ah suppose tae ken ah wid end up wi' germans in mah ain line o' succession? (Look, the whole no Germans on the throne was just rhetoric, also how was I supposed to know I would end up with Germans in my own line of succession?)

Enemies

  • Republicanism - TER CROWN YER RIGHTU' LAWFU' KING FOR WHA'LL BE KING BUT CHERLIE (AND CROWN YOUR RIGHTFUL LAWFUL KING FOR WHO WILL BE KING BUT CHARLIE)
  • Jacobinism - Nohet oenlee arhe wee noyt thi saem, yehw aerh souhme ooth tehe fourhtest apaerte ideoeliegies imaaeginable! (Not only are we not the same, we are some of the furthest apart ideologies imaginable)
  • Nazism - Ye nearly arrestit Robert I an IV an imprisonit his entire family, aw because he callit ye oot on yer bluff tae restore him tae the Bavarian throne along wi yer anti-catholicism, Awa' an' bile yer heid, ye insane closet pagan. (You nearly arrested Robert I and IV and imprisoned his entire family, all because he called you out on your bluff to restore him to the Bavarian throne along with your anti-catholicism, fuck you, you insane closet pagan.)
  • Orangism - Pumpin Williamites (Fucking Williamites)
  • Hanoverianism - Wha the deil hae we gotten for a king, But a wee wee German lairdie? Jist dornt swatch up uir monarchs since Francis I. (Who the hell do we have for a king, but a little German lordling? Just don't look up our monarchs since Francis I.)

Further Information

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