"Constitutions should consist only of general provisions; the reason is that they must necessarily be permanent, and that they cannot calculate for the possible change of things."
Constitutionalism is a non-quadrant ideology that can be defined either as a political system based on the constitution and constitutional methods of governance or as the mechanism of state power limited by the constitution.
According to Gerhard Casper: "Constitutionalism has both descriptive and prescriptive connotations. Used descriptively, it refers chiefly to the historical struggle for constitutional recognition of the people's right to 'consent' and certain other rights, freedoms, and privileges. Used prescriptively, its meaning incorporates those features of government seen as the essential elements of the... Constitution".
Constitutionalism has its origins in the ancient Greek constitutions of centuries before our era, which are known only from the works of Aristotle. During the period of the Principate, together with the acts of the Roman Senate, imperial prescriptions of various kinds appeared, which were called constitutions (constitutio ediktum, mandatum, decretum, rescriptum). Their content and place in the development of the legal system of Rome is of interest primarily as a stepping stone into the etymology of the concept.
Closer to the modern notion of the constitutional acts of the Magna Carta ( Kingdom of England, 1215), Bill of Rights (England, 1688 or 1689), which already see the constitutional ideas of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen ( France, 1789) that human rights should be recognized as "natural, inalienable, sacred" are examined.
The formation of constitutionalism in the world is associated with the formation of the constitutional order in the developed countries of Europe and America during the struggle against feudal absolutism in the XVII century.
The Society of the Friends of the Constitution was initially founded in 1789 by anti-royalist deputies from Brittany. The club eventually grew into a nationwide republican movement, with a membership estimated to be around half a million or more. The club was heterogenous and included the two most prominent French political factions in the early 1790s, The Mountain and the Girondins.
Between 1792 and 1793, the Girondins were the leading faction in the club, but, as Montagnard influence grew within the National Convention, the Girondins were being increasingly sidelined, and they were eventually disbarred from the National Convention, beginning a period of Montagnard dominance that lasted until July 1794.
The period of Montagnard dominance, known as the Reign of Terror, featured high levels of political violence and a large amount of executions. After multiple suppressed insurrections, the National Convention managed to push the Montagnards out off power and had Robespierre and 21 of his associates executed. The Jacobin Club closed in November 1794.
The first constitution in Poland was ratified by Stanisław August Poniatowski on May 5, 1791, hence the common name Constitution of 3 May 1791, but later it was overthrown by the Targowica Confederation, supported by the Russians.
How to Draw
- Draw a ball and fill it with the soft yellow color.
- Draw a medium dark yellow scroll in the center.
- Add eyes and you're done!
- (Optional prop) Make the ball hold the constitution by drawing either a scroll or a book.
|Soft Yellow||#EFE4B0||239, 228, 176|
|Medium Dark Yellow||#A08A21||160, 138, 33|
- Enlightenment Thought - Thanks for bringing some change to this world!
- Jeffersonian Democracy - Mr. Madison helped to write the US constitution!
- Hamiltonianism - Mr. Hamilton helped to interpret the US constitution!
- Classical Liberalism - Cares about liberty (and probably took some inspiration from me), which I respect.
- Libertarianism - Stays true to my principles, but won't shut up about guns for some reason. But that's okay, because that's the way the constitution intended!
- Constitutional Monarchism - How Monarchism should be.
- Ceremonial Monarchism - Well, at least you can't mess things up, I guess...
- Coolidgism - One of the most based Presidents, though that court marital you sign off on was cringe, but you did grant Mitchell clemency so at least it wasn't that cringe, still a violation of the first amendment though, other than that, you were based.
- Jacobinism - It was going so well... WHAT HAPPENED TO YOU?!
- Enlightened Absolutism - Uh, I guess you're okay, but where's the constitution?
- Indigenism - Has some good ideas, but is still a lawless savage.
Thanks for letting me plagiarize the great law of peace from you, though.
- Authoritarianism - nope.avi
- Totalitarianism - NOPE
- Absolute Monarchism - Limit your power, dammit!
- Bonapartism - You were doing so well, but you just had to give yourself absolute power!
- Police Statism - The constitution says that you shouldn't have so much power!
- Constitutional law
- Constitutional liberalism
- Magna Carta
- Bill of Rights
- Déclaration des droits de l'homme et du citoyen de 1789
- Constitution of 3 May 1791 (first constitution of Europe)
- Constitution of Pylyp Orlyk (1710)
- Historically for free white men only.
- For ceremonial reasons, certain leadership roles such as council representatives for respective nations of the confederacy typically were based on a certain degree of hereditary lineage from previous leaders, Though this was not always the case, and at times, roles of leadership also were heavily dependant on the merits of individuals within the confederacy as well as popular support, meaning that ceremonial lineage, alongside popularity, and individual merit all played a significant role in determining representatives for individual nations within the confederacy. Despite this, the power of council representatives mainly was to serve as the voice of their population's will within the council, rather than having any actual top-down authority over their population.
- While the Haudenosaunee were by far the most powerful indigenous nation in the beaver wars, essentially fighting as the sole native nation against a confederation of all the others for geo-political dominance, it can be argued that a major cause of the Beaver Wars was primarily due to many the complicated factors that came with the arrival of European colonialism, namely, the introduction of the French and British Empire, and that what supposedly sparked the wars in the first place, was the breaking down of former status-quo inter-tribal relations to instead form tribal alliances and rivalries between the two major empires in the area, (with the Iroquois being supported by the British Empire, and the other nations being supported by the French) arguably making the beaver wars less of a conflict over the Haudenosaunee's potential desire for imperial conquest over other nations, and moreso, a colonial proxy-war fought between the western imperial powers for influence over the America's, something which spiraled into the large-scale inter-tribal conflicts that are now commonly known as the "Beaver Wars", or the "French and Iroquois Wars".
- Despite being completely unlike slavery in our modern understanding of the term, The Haudenosaunee Confederacy did participate in acts that could vaguely be defined as a form of slavery, this would be done by leading ceremonial "Mourning Wars" against rival nations, where Haudenosaunee warriors would capture enemies of the rival nation both as a form of revenge for their slaughtered warriors, and to serve as effective replacements for their recently fallen. As contrasted to slavery in our modern sense of the term, these individuals would usually become full members of the nation over time, and similar methods of "forced adoptions" have been frequently practiced in countless tribal societies both in and outside of the America's across history.
Credit : u/gravitypressure Source