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    Religious Nationalism

    "A nation without a religion - that is like a man without breath."

    Religious Nationalism is an ideology that incorporates religion into nationalism. It seeks to use a shared religion to unite people under a national identity. It typically holds reactionary and intolerant views towards members of other religions, but not always. Religious nationalism is compatible with practically any religion, including Hinduism, Christianity, Islam, Judaism, Buddhism, etc.

    History and Variants

    Ideologically driven religious nationalism may not necessarily be directed against other religions but may be formulated in response to modernity and, in particular, as secular. The imbalance between religious and political aspects and, by appealing to national feelings, such as Islamic identity, as has often been the case in Pakistan and Indonesia, can lead to regional tensions.

    In general, many types of nationalism carry religious aspects, but as a marker of group identity, not as an intrinsic motivation for nationalist claims.

    Christian Nationalism

    Christian nationalists are more focused on domestic politics, such as passing laws that reflect their view of Christianity. Characteristic radical forms of religious or church nationalism appeared on the political field in various European countries, especially during the interwar period in the first half of the 20th century.

    In Europe, one of the most radical forms of Christian religious nationalism was Christoslavism, the belief that the Slavs can be exclusively Christians, and if they abandon this religion, they cease to be Slavs. As an example, Bosniaks who converted to Islam were considered by the Serbs as Turks.

    In Poland, a characteristic feature of nationalism has always been loyalty to the Roman Catholic Church. Groups like National Revival of Poland use slogans such as "Wielka Polska Katolicka (Greater Catholic Poland)" and violently protest against the legalization of same-sex marriage and abortion.

    In Russia, it is characterized by a common belonging to Orthodoxy. Many Russian neo-Nazi movements, such as Russian National Unity, are calling for an increased role for the Russian Orthodox Church.

    Christian Right

    The Christian right, or Christian Conservatism, is a political coalition of factions that are characterized by their strong support of Traditionalism, Christian Ethics, and National Conservatism. Christian conservatives seek to influence politics and public policy with their interpretation of the teachings of Christianity.

    In the United States, the Christian right is an informal coalition formed around a core of largely conservative evangelical Protestants and Roman Catholics. The Christian right draws additional support from other politically conservative Christians, such as Orthodox Christians and Latter Day Saints (Mormons). The movement has its roots in American politics going back as far as the 1940s; it has been especially influential since the 1970s. Its influence draws from grassroots activism as well as from a focus on social issues and the ability to motivate the electorate around those issues.

    The Christian right is notable for advancing socially conservative positions on issues such as support for school prayer, intelligent design, temperance and Sunday Sabbatarianism, as well as opposition to embryonic stem cell research, separation of church and state, LGBT+ rights, sex education, abortion, and pornography.

    Cultural Christianity

    Cultural Christianity is a form of secularism that adheres to Christian values and appreciates Christian culture while being nontheistic. It's also referred to as Christian atheism or Christian agnosticism. This kind of identification may be due to various factors, such as family background, personal experiences, and the social and cultural environment in which they grew up.

    Islamic Nationalism

    For a variant applied to Indonesia see: Pancasila

    According to the two-nation theory, Pakistani nationalism is very closely related to the Muslim heritage, the religion of Islam and Pan-Islamism. It is also associated with awareness as well as the expression of religious and ethnic influences that help shape national identity.

    The Iranian Revolution marks the beginning of Shia and Persian nationalism. Ayatollah Khomeini's anti-American, anti-communist and anti-Zionist views attract several European far-right movements (notably revolutionary nationalists) but worry the international community.

    Many religious nationalist groups in the Middle East are supported by Iran, in order to prevent Israel from establishing a strong dominance in the region.

    Hamas and PIJ are among the leading religious nationalist groups in cooperation with Iran. Although they have clashed in the past during Syrian Civil War and Yemeni Civil War, Hamas is now a strong ally of Iran against Israel.

    Millî Görüş

    Millî Görüş (meaning National Vision) is an Islamist socio-political movement inspired by former prime minister of Turkey, Necmettin Erbakan. It advocates that Turkey can develop with its own human and economic power by protecting its core values, trust in God and rivaling the West. He wants to eliminate interest rates (Because it's haram.) and create a economy based on a Islamic concept of Sadaqah.

    The ideology of the movement is currently adopted by New Welfare Party and Felicity Party. Justice and Development Party and people such as Recep Tayyip Erdoğan and Abdullah Gül have roots in this movement.

    Hindu Nationalism

    Main article: Hindutva

    Pagan Nationalism

    Paganism resurfaces as a topic of fascination in 18th to 19th-century Romanticism, in particular in the context of the literary Viking revivals, which portrayed historical Celtic, Slavic and Germanic polytheists as noble savages. Romanticist interest in non-classical antiquity coincided with the rise of Romantic nationalism and the rise of the nation state in the context of the 1848 revolutions, leading to the creation of national epics and national myths for the various newly formed states. Pagan or folkloric topics were also common in the musical nationalism of the period. Germanic occultism and neopaganism emerged in the early 20th Century and became influential, with beliefs such as Ariosophy, combining with the far-right Völkisch movement which eventually culminated in Nazism. Post-WWII continuations of similar beliefs have given rise to the Wotansvolk, a white nationalist neopagan movement, in the late 20th Century.


    Buddhist Nationalism

    In the context of Myanmar’s political opening since March 2011, Buddhist activism has made headlines over the past two years due to outbreaks of communal violence across the country marked by religious differences, notably anti-Muslim, that threaten to derail Myanmar’s once-promising transition. Many see a connection between these violent episodes and the rise of new Buddhist networks and organizations, including the 969 movement and the Patriotic Association of Myanmar. [3]

    Sinhalese Buddhist nationalism is influenced by Sinhalese Buddhist mytho-history that was deployed by monks and politicians in the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries to assert that Sri Lanka is the designated sanctuary for Theravada Buddhism, belongs to Sinhalese Buddhists, and Tamils and others live there only due to Sinhalese Buddhist sufferance. This ideology has enabled majority superordination, minority subordination, and a separatist war waged by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE). [4]

    Jewish Nationalism

    Main article: Religious Zionism

    National Mysticism

    National Mysticism is a nationalist ideology which has a "mystical" view of the nation. It sees the nation as a "higher being" and it is given a God-like status. This concept has its origins in the beliefs of Johann Gottlieb Fichte, but similar viewpoints can also be found in certain pre-modern civilizations. The ideology places strong emphasis on the national mythos, sometimes even including Pseudo-Historic ideas.

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    • Clerical Fascism - My extreme self. Oh my...
    • Esoteric Fascism - Same as above, but even more extreme.
    • Turkish Idealism and Ittihadism - Same as above but islamic.
    • Ba'athism - الله, سوریا و بشار! (even if you're secular)
    • Religious Anarchism - At least you're religious.
    • Homoconservatism - I admire how you aspire to be faithful in spite of your lifestyles. You're good political allies for now....
    • Kemalism - Fellow nationalist, but a s*cular one. Abolishing the caliphate was a grave mistake, and I will not forgive you for that! While most of us are supportive of Erdoğan and presidential system, the Felicity Party isn't and they're in your alliance.

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