African Socialism

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"When we planned our country's economic development, we had the strategic objective of our Revolution in mind. It was not planned for economic development [to be] solely an end in itself. There are some who have forgotten that the sole basis of our revolutionary struggle was the ideology and politics which we follow..."

African Socialism is an economically left-wing and culturally variable ideology. It is a pan-Africanist and socialist ideology that believes in sharing economic resources based on traditional African methods of doing so. There have been multiple conceptions of African Socialism historically, with differing variants coming from many different theorists, leaders and revolutionaries. While African Socialists are typically Marxists, specifically Marxist-Leninists, this is not always the case. It heavily opposes capitalism, colonialism and imperialism.


African Socialism first came about in 1956 with the book "Les masses africaines et l'actuelle condition humaine". From 1983-1987, a form of African Socialism created by Sankara came to mainstream politics in Burkina Faso called Sankarism . Throughout its history, Marxism has played a major rule in the evolution of African Socialism. From 1952-1966, Nkrumaism/Nkrumahism became a popular form of African Socialism in Ghanian politics. Following the Angolan Civil War, Angola came under a Marxist-Leninist government. Angola later removed the Marxist-Leninist system, but continues to be 'Socialist' to this day.


African Socialists have a wide range of beliefs, In general, they believe in an anti-capitalist economic policy and resistance to colonial imperialism. Some see the concept of liberal class as a white foreign concept that goes against the concept of the tribe which has been enlarged to all of Africa through a common struggle against foreign exploitation.



Coat of Arms of Sankarism (Click to enlarge)

Sankarism is an authleft ideology in Burkina Faso based on the ideas of Thomas Sankara, who was an anti-colonial, feminist and Marxist-Leninist revolutionary and president. Sankarism is left-wing, pan-Africanist and anti-imperialist. Thomas Sankara was sometimes dubbed the "Che Guevara of Africa" and stood in opposition to the cult of personality unlike other Marxist-Leninist ideologies.

Though Thomas Sankara himself was a communist and Marxist-Leninist, many Burkinabe people and organizations who follow  Social Democracy, Populism, or  Nationalism have also dubbed themselves "Sankarists".



Indian Ocean Socialism

Indian Ocean Socialism was the ideology of France-Albert René, the second president of the Seychelles from 1977 to 2004. Under his rule, the Seychelles built one of Africa's highest gross domestic products per capita.


Anti-Apartheid revolutionary and South Africa's first black leader, Nelson Mandela ideologically self-identified as a Socialist and ultimately believed in a classless society, having been influenced by Marxism. But when in power he supported the country's liberal democratic model, while still taking strong measures to combat poverty, encourage land reform, and expanding healthcare services. He expressed desires to move to a social-democratic economy but figured that it wasn't possible due to the circumstances at the time (the fall of the USSR and the ascendency of neoliberalism.)


Nkrumaism is the ideology of the Ghanian president and revolutionary Kwame Nkrumah. The goal of Nkrumaism is the expulsion of colonial powers from Africa, and the union of all African foreign colonies under one borderless African superstate. Kwame Nkrumah's Socialist ideology was influenced by Marx, Lenin, and Mao, and he invested into bringing foreign theorists to help develop his specific ideology. There was initial struggle to differentiate it from other forms of Marxist ideology, but eventually, The Kwame Nkrumah institute reached the conclusion that:

Nkrumaism is simply the ideology for the new Africa, independent and absolutely free from imperialism, organised on a continental scale, founded upon the conception of one and united Africa, drawing its strength from modern science and technology and from the traditional African belief that the free development of each is conditioned by the free development of all.

Nkrumaism served as the state ideology of Ghana during Kwame Nkrumah's reign. Although Nkrumah and his political scientists heavily invested in the theoretical framework of this ideology, his ultimate goals were never truly realized.


Ujamaa, which translates to family or cooperative family, was the ideology practiced in Tanzania by it's creator Julius Nyerere. It acts as a socialist economy in which key industries are nationalized and other components of the economy are united under a central democracy.



How to Draw

Flag of African Socialism
  1. Draw a ball.
  2. Fill it with red.
  3. Draw a yellow sihouette of Africa.
  4. Add a red star in the middle.
  5. Add the eyes and you're done!
Color Name HEX RGB
Red #ED1C24 237, 28, 36
Yellow #F0C600 240, 198, 0


Afrsoc has trauma towards colonalism and tries to lead his nation forward. Like his father Pan-Africanism, he believes in African unity and will persuade his brothers into doing so. Because he believes Capitalism was the mindest of all colonialist empires by corporate slave holdings, he blames capitalism for Africa's poverty and troubles and believes any capitalist in the African continent is none more than a "traitor" and "western-backed neocolonial puppet".



  • Socialism - Only Socialism can save Africa now!
  • Marxism - Your literature really says a lot about global western exploitation!
  • Pan-Africanism - Our independence is meaningless unless it is linked up with the total liberation of the African continent!
  • Castroism - Thanks for helping us liberate Angola from the Portuguese fashs!
  • Leninism - The goal of Socialism is Communism.
  • Guevarism - Openly helped our Congolese brothers in the eastern region against the Mobutu government.
  • Black Nationalism - We must take back Africa for the African people. My people will no longer be exploited!
  • Gaddafism - Fellow African Anti-Colonial Socialist ,Together ,we shall drive the Imperialists out of Africa.
  • Separatism - Kick the Colonials off our land!
  • Indigenism - Fellow oppressed minority who had their land unjustly stolen by colonial powers and whose plight for taking back their stolen land is ignored by the majority of the privledged first-world people and activists? Welcome to the club pal...
  • Maoism–Third Worldism - Cites me as a major inspiration, we both like Nkrumah a lot.
  • Titoism - My friend from Yugoslavia.
  • National Communism - Liberating nationalism is incredibly based. Death to western imperialists!
  • Arab Socialism - Long live Arabic-African unity!


  • Nationalism - Depends on who it is.
  • Ethnonationalism - Same as above.
  • Social Democracy - Many of our afro-comrades like UPC and the MPLA eventually turned to this...
  • Nguema Thought - listen, I'm flattered you like me so much but what the actual fuck is your problem? Also, while I support nationalist leftism, I don't want black Pol Potism.
  • Brother Hao - African Communo-Capitalism? I also doubt whatever PRC really cares about Africa or is just another authcap imperialist with red paint.
  • Agrarian Socialism - Death to the MPLA ? More like Death to the UNITA! But Savimbi was still an African Socialist and Maoist, despite him becoming an ally of Western imperialism and opposing the MPLA.
  • Afunism - Ok, I get it, You want to save Africa from the colonialists, but What's that whole story about Fascism, Anti-Feminism, Sterilization of Religious people and Death Penalty for those who hang out with people who don't have the same race than us or disagree with you?


  • Imperialism - Evil crooked white man that stole our treasures and resources, discriminated against our people, and left our lands divided to later exploit African infighting!
  • Gaullism - ET VOUS AUSSI, GAULLE!
  • Mobutism - You killed Lumumba! You're also backed by neocons and Belgium!
  • Aminism - LITERALLY A BLACK FASH! Why must you undo Uganda's stagnant progress?!?!
  • Capitalism - Capitalism is indistinguishable from colonialism and white supremacy!
  • White Nationalism - DOWN WITH RACISM!
  • White Capitalism - Combination of the two guys above. Fuck you!
  • Reactionaryism - As important African traditions are, Africa needs to step aside into the 21st century and rid itself of unnecessary structures.
  • Liberalism - Silly Afonso, your RENAMO group failed to overthrow me not once, but twice!
  • Salazarism - Get rekt'd by the MPLA, FRELIMO, PAIGC, and MLSTP!
  • Garveyism - You may be a pan-African and a black nationalist, but You're still a filthy... CAPITALIST... FASCIST... PIG!!



Alternative designs

Comics and Artwork

Further Information


By Kwane Nkrumah

By Julius Nyerere



Why Socialism failed in AFRICA

Online Communities



  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 w:Economic Freedom Fighters#Allegations of fascism and anti-feminism
  2. Although he supported the Russian invasion of Ukraine as a "Russian Anti-Imperialist programme against NATO".
  3. 3.0 3.1
  4. 4.0 4.1
  5. While the group has expressed anti-white sentiments, this is not particular to a single ethnic group. Rather it is a generalized sentiment shared among the black population in South Africa.
  6. 6.0 6.1
  7. 7.0 7.1
  8. w:Economic Freedom Fighters#Connections to violence
  10. [1]