Independence Anarchism

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Independence Anarchism, also known as Anarcho-Independentism, is an anarchist, culturally left-wing and economically left-wing movement of movements that emphasizes the autonomy, self-determination or independence (national liberation) of a given people with a common identity from forms of hierarchy, especially centralized ones, in defense of the people's language and the non- reactionary aspects of its culture and history. It inhabits the bottom left corner of the political compass.

Independence anarchism as a term originated in the stateless nations of Western Europe in the 80s, and was "officially" adopted by independence anarchists at their first international meeting in 1985, in Guasila, Sardinia. As a result, the movements from Western Europe (with the exception of Quebec) are the only ones that use the label. A few examples of them are in Catalonia, Brittany, Occitania, the Basque Country, the Canary Islands, Sicily, Sardinia, Andalusia, Castile and Galicia.

However, many similar national liberation movements in which anarchists have participated have also existed in Eastern Europe, East Asia, the Americas and Northern Africa. These include Hong Kong, Korea, the Philippines, Georgia, Armenia, Puerto Rico, Cuba, Kabylia (and Algeria in general), the Rif (and Morocco in general), Macedonia (and Bulgaria in general), Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Ukraine.

Independence anarchism is seen as an anarchist tendency and a strain of Post-Colonial Anarchism alongside Indigenous Anarchism, Black Anarchism and Chicano Anarchism, all of which are involved in national liberation struggles. Ideologically, independence anarchism is compatible with both social and individualist forms of anarchism.

History and Branches

Catalan Countries

The history of independence anarchism in the Catalan Countries (territories where the Catalan language is spoken) can be traced back to the 19th century. As the Catalan anarchist-oriented worker movement and the revindicative national liberation movement became ever so tied together, mostly due to their mutual belief in federalism, ideals close to those of modern independence anarchism began to arise. By 1881, Josep Llunas i Pujals, the primary theorist of what would later become anarcho-syndicalism, founded the popular libertarian collectivist weekly newspaper La Tramontana (The Tramontane), akin to Catalanism and federalism, while many anarchist Catalanists such as Jaume Brossa wrote essays on the magazine L'Avenç (The Advance), founded on the same year. Although L'Avenç and La Tramontana were closed by the authorities in 1893 and 1896 respectively, they would set the stage for other anarchist newspapers in Catalan to appear, such as L'Avenir (The Future) and El Progrés (The Progress), both in 1905. La Tramontana even shortly came back in 1903, 1907 and 1913.

With the creation of the National Confederation of Labour (CNT) syndicate in 1910 in Barcelona, factions within anarcho-syndicalism that can be considered the precursors to Catalan independence anarchism began to materialize. Many prominent anarcho-syndicalists such as Joan Peiró, Salvador Seguí and Federica Montseny made statements in support of Catalan autonomy (despite the Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia being a subject that initially caused an internal division in the CNT). Meanwhile, the Iberian Anarchist Federation (FAI) was founded in 1927 in València.

Catalan anarchist militiamen carrying an estelada

The CNT and the FAI briefly formed the CNT-FAI during the Spanish Civil War to prevent the nationalists from taking Catalonia. The CNT-FAI union still had its internal ruptures, which resulted in two main factions: the more moderate, minoritarian and reformist Treintists that were mostly made up of some CNT members, and the more majoritarian, insurrectionary Faists led by the FAI. Both sectors, despite the difference of their tactics, sometimes shared a Catalanist sentiment although revindicative/nationalist rhetoric was nowhere to be seen. Before the CNT-FAI's social revolution fell apart, a proposal was made by the Valencian branch of the CNT to make a Statute of Autonomy for the Valencian Country, but the project never saw the light of day. The nationalists would take over all of Spain in 1939 and Franco would later have a lot of CNT-FAI members executed, effectively driving most Catalan anarchists into exile for the duration of the Francoist dictatorship.

Throughout more recent history, the CGT was formed in 1979 as a result of a split in the CNT concerning union elections. The CNT, the CGT and the FAI would continue to campaign for anarchism in Catalonia, frequently holding debates and talks about the "national question" between its members.

However, aside from these three main groups, independence anarchism would finally first appear after the Spanish transition to democracy, with the birth of self-described independence anarchist collectives exclusive to the Catalan Countries.

In Catalonia, these organizations would first appear in the 80's. The two most notable groups of the era were the Col·lectiu Ikària (Ikària Collective; CI) and the Federació Anarco-Comunista Catalana (Catalan Anarcho-Communist Federation; FACC).

Propaganda document by the Ikària Collective

Ikària was born on January 1980 out of student movements and smaller independent libertarian organizations with the objective of initiating a debate inside the anarchist movement in Barcelona. After 1985 it became known as Ikària-Contracorrent, and it published the fanzine Ikària: la Polla de Déu from January 1985 to March 1990. The FACC was founded in Barcelona in 1981 as an anarcho-communist organization for national liberation (after a long process started in 1978 by the anarcho-communist affinity group Tramuntana Floreal, now more commonly known as Nord-Est Llibertari), edited the bulletin Tramuntana (not to be confused with the original from 1881) and the newspaper Visca la Terra (Long Live the Land), and registered itself as a political party in 1983 under the name "Partido Federación Anarquista-Comunista Catalana".

The CI and the FACC worked together in the comarcal Libertarian Assembly of the Barcelonès, but nonetheless began to lose activity in 1982. Thus, on November 1982, they joined forces to create the Coordinadora Llibertària dels Països Catalans (Libertarian Coordinator of the Catalan Countries).

Aside from the CI and the FACC, the Libertarian Coordinator of the Catalan Countries regrouped several Libertarian Assemblies in different comarcas, such as that of the Empordà (including the Coordinadora Llibertària Empordanesa or Empordanese Libertarian Coordinator, which edited a publication called La Campana de l'Empordà (The Bell of the Empordà)), the Baix Camp (including the Col·lectiu Llibertari de Vilaplana (Libertarian Collective of Vilaplana)), the Maresme (and the Coordinadora Llibertària del Maresme or Libertarian Coordinator of the Maresme, which edited La Ceba (The Onion)) and the Berguedà, among others. There were also several smaller groups that followed independence anarchism inside the Coordinator, such as the Col·lectiu Independentista Estel Negre (Independentist Collective Black Star), the Grup Llibertari de l’Ateneu de Mataró (Libertarian Group of the Mataró Athenaeum), the Grup Anarquista l'Insurrecte (Anarchist Group 'the Insurgent'), the Aliança de la Democràcia Socialista (Alliance of Socialist Democracy) and even a youth organization called the Joventuts Anarco-Independentistes (Independence Anarchist Youth; JAI), which likely edited (along with the FACC) a fanzine in the city of L'Escala called Skena Pelat: fanzine llibertari de l'Empordà (Skena Pelat: libertarian fanzine of the Empordà).

After years of organizing activities nationally and internationally, the Libertarian Coordinator of the Catalan Countries became inactive by the mid 80's, but ultimately ceased to exist when the FACC was publicly dissolved in late 1988. The Ikària Collective suffered the same fate soon after their headquarters were attacked with an incendiary bomb on July 9th, 1990.

It is also important to note that a short-lived independence anarchist syndicate referred to as the National Confederation of Labour-Catalan Countries (CNT-PPCC) was formed on late 1983 as a result from a split that the CNT underwent. The CNT-PPCC is seen as another organizational proposal of the FACC.

In the Valencian Country, nominally, independence anarchism would take a bit longer to arrive. Nevertheless, the collective Recerca Autònoma (Autonomous Research) was formed in 1993. It edited a magazine of the same name, first released on February 1994. Recerca Autònoma and other Valencian groups with similar tendencies such as Germania Socialista (Socialist Brotherhood) eventually fell into inactivity.

In spite of previous events though, independence anarchism in the Catalan Countries experienced a resurgence in the 2000's, with the creation of several new organizations. For example, local groups like Acció Autònoma (Autonomous Action), born in Terrassa in 1997, the collective Catarko, founded in the comarca of El Prat in 2006, and the Valencian collective L'Ullal (The Tusk), born in 2008.

Logo of Negres Tempestes

But by far the largest independence anarchist collective in the Catalan Countries is Negres Tempestes (Black Storms; NNTT), founded in 2005 after many encounters between like-minded individuals in the annual Catalan protests of September 11th. Negres Tempestes edits the magazine La Rosa dels Vents (The Compass Rose) and focuses its activity on various squatted social centers, especially the Can Vies Self-Managed Social Center.

The Bloc Negre (Black Bloc) of the annual demonstrations on September 11th, National Day of Catalonia, serves as a yearly meeting point for the most recent Catalan independence anarchist groups.

TBD

Brittany

TBA

Occitania

TBA

Basque Country

TBA

Canary Islands

TBA

Sicily

TBA

Sardinia

TBA

Andalusia

TBA

Castile

TBA

Galicia

TBA

Quebec

TBA

Similar Movements

Hong Kong

TBA

Puerto Rico

TBA

Beliefs

TBA

Nationalist or Internationalist?

Contrary to modern popular thought, Independence Anarchism differs from Post-Colonial Anarchism in that, while the latter identifies themselves as an anti-state nationalist ideology (also focusing more on combatting the colonialist part of imperialism), the former abandoned all mentions of nationalism as soon as newer terminology was introduced.

An example of this is in Canarian independence anarchism. The first major collective that came in representation of the movement was the COA, which called for self-management and anti-militarism from a "nationalist" perspective, according to them. However, they also wrote:

"Las realidades van más rápidas que el lenguaje. El término "nacional" o "nacionalista" lo asociamos al Estado porque históricamente han estado identificados. (...). Pero no es eso lo que nos tiene que parar, ya encontraremos otros términos cuando hayamos avanzado más; no por eso debemos cuestionar el trabajo por la liberación de los pueblos."
"Realities go faster than language. We associate the terms "national" and "nationalist" with the State because they have historically been identified. (...). But that is not what has to stop us, we will find other terms when we advance further; not because of this shall we question the work for the liberation of all peoples."

COA, 1984, 'Por qué un antimilitarista es también un nacionalista'.

Indeed, a couple years later, the Spanish terms "anarcoindependentismo" and "independentismo libertario" were passed around the Canary Islands, after the 1st International Independence Anarchist Encounter that happened in 1985.

In Catalan independence anarchism, the term "nationalism" never got any traction, but a similar opinion is expressed:

"L’opció per l’«independentisme» enfront del «nacionalisme» respon a diversos criteris. En principi, no considerem el nacionalisme necessàriament oposat a l’internacionalisme. De fet, el segon només es pot entendre —ni que sigui etimològicament— com una ampliació del primer. (...). Ara bé, no defensem el fenomen «nació» en bloc, perquè en la mesura que fenomen poblacional, presenta dins seu totes les contradiccions de les societats classistes. (...), donat el pes que té la burgesia catalana dins l’Estat espanyol, el vell món «català» és prou gran, i el nostre antagonisme social amb ell prou pronunciat, com perquè ens distanciem del «nacionalisme» i ens apropem al concepte d’«independentisme», entès en el seu contingut més ruptural i més d’autoafirmació enfront d’un poder."
"The option for «independentism» versus «nationalism» responds to several criteria. In principle, we do not consider nationalism necessarily opposed to internationalism. In fact, the latter can only be understood —not just etymologically— as an extension of the former. (...). However, we do not defend the «nation» phenomenon as a whole, because even as a population phenomenon, it presents within itself all the contradictions of class societies. (...), given the weight that the Catalan bourgeoisie has within the Spanish State, the old «Catalan» world is large enough, and our social antagonism with it is as sufficiently pronounced as to make us distance ourselves from «nationalism» and approach the concept of «independentism», understood in its most disruptive and self-affirming way against power.

Ricard de Vargas Golarons, Joan A. Montesinos, Josep M. Canela, Joan Palomas, Joan Casares and Enric Cabra; 1987; 'Anarquisme i alliberament nacional'.

Personality

Very angry all the time, he just wants independence. TBD

How to Draw

Flag of Independence Anarchism
The flag of independence anarchism is the anarchist version of the estelada (starred flag), an unofficial flag typically flown by supporters of Catalan independence. It was first notably used by the previously mentioned Catalan Anarcho-Communist Federation (FACC) in the 80's and later used by more recent groups from the 2000's onwards. Another version of the independence anarchist flag, mainly used by the Ikària collective (but first formulated by the FACC in November 1983), swapped the red 8-pointed star with a white circle-A symbol. Since then, many other variants have appeared (for example, one with a black field), especially recently, during the growth of the internet.

The symbolism behind the flag is as follows. The red stripes on the yellow background represent Catalonia or the Catalan Countries. The triangle symbolizes liberty, fraternity and equality, while the color black is the color of anarchy. The eight-pointed red star is a compass rose and, at the same time, represents the whole world and the 8 territories of the Catalan Countries (Catalonia proper, the Valencian Country, Andorra, the Balearic Islands, Northern Catalonia, La Franja, l'Alguer and el Carxe).

  1. Draw a ball.
  2. Fill in with yellow.
  3. Draw four horizontal red stripes.
  4. Draw a right-pointing, black triangle on the leftmost point.
  5. Draw an 8-pointed red star in the center of the triangle.
  6. Draw the eyes, and you're done!
Color Name HEX RGB
Yellow #FFD800 255, 216, 0
Red #CD0000 205, 0, 0
Black #141414 20, 20, 20


Relations

Friends

Frenemies

  • Nationalism - As much as I dislike you, I don't dislike the existence of nations. I'm still waiting for you to acknowledge that nations are stateless and borderless.
  • Anationalism - Your false internationalism that does not acknowledge peoples' right to autonomy makes your ideology inconsistent with your anarchism, and is merely another form of imperialism. And I'm not a nationalist! Esperanto is cool though.
  • National Communism - Meh, we collaborate sometimes.. Many see you as my authoritarian counterpart, but you're actually nationalist, not independentist.

Enemies

Further Information

For overlapping political theory see:

Post-Colonial Anarchism Black Anarchism ( Anarkata) • Indigenous Anarchism Democratic Confederalism ( Dawronoye) • Neozapatismo

YouTube

Wikipedia

People

People in bold are viewed as independence anarchists, people in bold and italics are viewed as predecessors to independence anarchism, and people in italics are mostly known for other reasons although they fit in one of the two previous categories.

Online Communities

Literature

General

Catalan Countries

Brittany

Occitania

Basque Country

  • Anark-Herria by Marc Légasse and Jakue Pascual. Publishing house Txertoa, Basque Country, 1986. Re-edited by Juantxo Estebaranz, Javi Olaizola, Ritxi Aizpuru, Idoia Eizmendi, Jordi Bonet i Martí and Jon Markel Ormazabal. Publishing houseTxalaparta, 2011. (In Spanish and Basque)
  • El movimiento autónomo en Euskadi by Emilio López Adán (Beltza). (In Spanish)
  • Apuntes sobre anarquismo y cuestión nacional by Jakue Pascual. Published in the Borroka Garaia da! website; Basque Country; November 28th, 2011. (In Spanish)
  • Independentzia osoa / Independencia total by Anark-Herria. Basque Country, 2000's. (In Basque and Spanish)
  • Anarquismo e izquierda abertzale by Borroka garaia da!. Published in the Borroka Garaia da! website; Basque Country; June 4th, 2015. (In Spanish)
  • Aportación al debate sobre la izquierda abertzale by Jakue Pascual. Published in the Anark-Herria website; Donostia-San Sebastián; November 18th, 2011. (In Spanish)
  • Marc Légasse: anarquista y separatista (interview with Marc Légasse). Published in the Punto y Hora de Euskal Herria magazine, Bermeo, September 1982. (In Spanish)
  • Breve historia del anarquismo vasco by Juantxo Estebarantz. Publishing house Txertoa; June 17th, 2011. (In Spanish)
  • Por una alternativa libertaria y global by Mikel Orrantia. Publishing house Zero Zyx; January 1st, 1978. (In Spanish)
  • Nación y anarquismo: notas para una discusión más allá de las caricaturas by Manuel de la Tierra. Published in the Ekintza Zuzena magazine, Santiago de Chile, December 2010. (In Spanish)
  • Euskadi: ETA y el nacionalismo revolucionario by Mikel Orrantia. Published in the Revista Mensual/Monthly Review, May 1979. (In Spanish)
  • Cuestión nacional y autonomía obrera en Euskal Herria by Zirikatu. Biscay, 1985 (published in 1989). (In Spanish)
  • Comandos Autónomos: un anticapitalismo iconoclasta by the Felix Likiniano Cultural Association. Publishing house Likiniano Elkartea, Bilbao, November 1996. (In Spanish)
  • Komando Autonomoak: una historia anticapitalista by the Felix Likiniano Cultural Association. Publishing house Virus; Bilbao; December 17th, 1998. (In Basque and Spanish)
  • Nazio arazoa by Bereterretxe. Publishing house Likiniano Elkartea, 1978. (In Basque)
  • Telúrica vasca de liberación by Jakue Pascual. Publishing house Virus, November 1996. (In Spanish)
  • El hilo negro de los noventa: encuentros con la autonomía by the Felix Likiniano Cultural Association. Publishing house Likiniano Elkartea, Bilbao. (In Spanish)
  • La gran curva vasca del 2000 by Karlos García Salmones. Publishing house Likiniano Elkartea, c. 2000, Bilbao. (In Spanish)
  • Palabras de un anarquista vasco by Marc Légasse. Publishing house Likiniano Elkartea; January 1st, 2002; Bilbao. (In Spanish)
  • Felix Likiniano: miliciano de la utopía by Pilar Iparragirre. Publishing house Txalaparta; Tafalla; January 1st, 1994. (In Spanish)
  • Marc Légasse: un rebelde burlón by Amaia Ereñaga. Publishing house Txalaparta; 1997. (In Spanish)

Canary Islands

Sicily

Sardinia

Castile

Puerto Rico

Kabylia

Cuba

Russia

Ukraine

Quebec

Aragon

  • El Consejo de Aragón by Alejandro García. Published in the Utopías y realidades blog; Aragon; February 22nd, 2008. (In Spanish)

Asturias

Galicia

Cantabria

  • Anarquismo y nacionalismo by Agitación Rural. Published in the 2nd issue of the Agitación Rural fanzine, Cantabria, 2008. (In Spanish)

Levant

Periodicals

Catalan Countries

La Tramontana (1881 – 1896, 1903, 1907, 1913) (Catalan Wikipedia)

Periòdich vermell, Periòdich polític vermell.

Most issues can be found here and here.

L'Avenç (1881 – 1893) (Catalan Wikipedia)

Periodich catalanista; Lletras, Art, Ciencia; Ciencias, Arts, Lletras; Literari, Artístich, Científich; Literari, Artístic, Científic.

Most issues can be found here.

El Chornaler (1883 – 1884) (Catalan Wikipedia)

Periódic defensor dels que treballan y no menchan, enemig asérrim dels que menchan y no treballan.

  • 1 (December 22nd, 1883)
  • 2 (December 29th, 1883)
  • 3 (January 5th, 1884)
  • 4 (January 12th, 1884)
  • 5 (January 19th, 1884)
  • 6 (January 26th, 1884)
  • 7 (February 2nd, 1884)
  • 8 (February 9th, 1884)
  • 9 (February 16th, 1884)
  • 10 (February 23rd, 1884)
  • 11 (March 1st, 1884)
  • 12 (March 8th, 1884)
  • 13 (March 15th, 1884)
  • 14 (March 22th, 1884)
  • 15 (March 29th, 1884)
  • 16 (April 5th, 1884)
  • 17 (April 12th, 1884)
  • 18 (April 19th, 1884)
  • 19 (April 26th, 1884)
  • 20 (May 3rd, 1884)
  • 21 (May 10th, 1884)
  • 22 (May 17th, 1884)
  • 23 (May 24th, 1884)
  • 24 (May 31st, 1884)
  • 25 (June 7th, 1884)

Ciència Social (1895 – 1901) (Anarchist and Anarcho-Syndicalist Press in Spain, 1869-1939; in Spanish)

Revista mensual de Sociología, Artes y Letras.

  • 1st epoch (October 1895 – June 1896)
    • 1 (October 1895)
    • 2 (November 1895)
    • 3 (December 1895)
    • 4 (January 1896)
    • 5 (February 1896)
    • 6 (March 1896)
    • 7 (April 1896)
    • 8 (May 1896)
    • 9 (June 1896)
  • 2nd epoch (April 1897 – 1901)
    • 1 (1898)
    • 2 (1898)
    • 3 (1898)
    • 4 (1898)
    • 5 (1898)
    • 6 (1898)
    • 7 (1899)
    • 8 (1899)
    • 9 (1899)
    • 10 (1899)
    • 11 (1899)
    • 12 (1899)
    • 13 (1899)
    • 14 (1899)
    • 15 (February 1900?)

El Progrés (1905) (Anarchist and Anarcho-Syndicalist Press in Spain, 1869-1939; in Spanish)

Periódich quinzenal, Periódich nacionalista radical.

  • 1 (March 1st, 1905)
  • 2 (April 1st, 1905)
  • 3 (April 15th, 1905)
  • 4 (May 5th, 1905)
  • 5
  • 6 (June 17th, 1905)
  • 7 (July 12th, 1905)
  • 8 (August 1st, 1905)
  • 9
  • 10 (September 11th, 1905)
  • 11
  • 12 (October 7th, 1905)
  • 13
  • 14
  • 15 (November 18th, 1905)

L'Avenir (1905) (Anarchist and Anarcho-Syndicalist Press in Spain, 1869-1939; in Spanish)

Publicació setmanal de nous horitzons de perfecció.

  • 1 (March 4th, 1905)
  • 2 (March 11th, 1905)
  • 3 (March 18th, 1905)
  • 4 (March 25th, 1905)
  • 5 (April 1st, 1905)

Terra Lliure (1949 – 1984) (L'Argonnaute library, in French)

Butlletí de la Regional Catalana C.N.T, Butlletí interior de l'Agrupació Catalana C.N.T..

Most issues can be found in the above link.

El Vitet (1978? – 1981?)

Arca! Arca! Arca! Visca el comunisme i la independència! Muiga el mal govern!.

  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4
  • 5 (1979)
  • 6
  • 7
  • 8 (1981)
  • ?

Visca la Terra!! (1981 – 1986)

Periòdic anarquista-comunista revolucionari de parla catalana.

  • 1 (September 1981)
  • 2 (September 11th, 1982)
  • 3 (November 20th, 1982)
  • 4 (December 1982)
  • 5 (March 1983)
  • 6 (April 1983)
  • 7 (September 11th, 1983)
  • 8 (March 15th, 1984)
  • 9 (1984)
  • 10 (September 11th, 1984)
  • 11 (October 6th, 1984)
  • 12 (Special issue; June 20th, 1985)
  • 13 (July 6th, 1985)
  • 14 (September 11th, 1985)
  • 15 (October 1985)
  • 16 (December 28th, 1985)
  • 17 (January 11th, 1986)
  • 18 (February 1986)
  • 19 (March 1986)
  • 20 (April 1986)
  • 21 (May 1986)
  • 22 (1986)
  • 23 (September 11th, 1986)
  • 24 (October 1st, 1987)

Tramuntana butlletí (1982 – 1985?)

No subtitle.

  • 1 (November 1982)
  • 2 (January-February 1983)
  • 3 (November 1983)
  • 4 (January 1984)
  • 5 (March 1984)
  • 6 (April 1984)
  • 7 (May 1984)
  • 8 (1984)
  • 9 (Summer 1984)
  • 10 (Spring 1985)
  • 11 (Summer 1985)
  • 1? (July 1986)

La Ceba (1982)

Full informatiu de la Coordinadora Llibertària del Maresme.

  • 1 (1982) + independence anarchist manifesto

La Campana de l'Empordà (1983)

Òrgan de la Coordinadora Llibertària Empordanesa.

  • 0 (January-February 1983)
  • 1 (March 1983)

Ikària (1984 – 1990)

La polla de déu.

  • 1 (Summer-September 1984)
  • 2 (October-November 1984)
  • 3 (January-February 1985)
  • 4 (March-April 1985)
  • 5 (May 1st, 1985)
  • 6 (June-July 1985)
  • 7 (August-September 1985)
  • 8 (October 1985)
  • 9 (1985)
  • 10 (January 1986)
  • 11 (February-March 1986)
  • 12 (September 1986)
  • 13 (1986)
  • 14 (December 1986-January 1987)
  • 15 (February-March 1987)
  • 16 (September 1987)
  • 17 (April 1988)
  • 18 (May 1988)
  • 19 (November-December 1988)
  • 20 (May-June 1989)
  • 21 (December 1989-January 1990)
  • 22 (February-March 1990)
  • Autodissolution document (September 1991)

Skena Pelat (1986 – 1987)

Fanzine llibertari de l'Empordà.

  • 1 (October 1986)
  • 2 (1986)
  • 3 (March-April 1987)

Recerca Autònoma (1994 – 1998)

Butlletí informatiu.

  • 0 (February 1994)
  • 1 (April 1994)
  • 2 (June 1994)
  • 3 (September 1994)
  • 4 (December 1994)
  • 5 (March 1995)
  • 6 (June 1995)
  • 7 (November 1995)
  • 8 (May 1996)
  • 9 (October 1996)
  • 10 (March 1997)
  • 11 (June 1997)
  • 12 (December 1997)
  • 13 (June 1998)

Fulls de l'Autòpsia Social (1994)

Unknown subtitle.

  • 1 (March 1994)
  • 2 (May 1994)
  • 3 (June 1994)

Laketània (2004)

Revista d'agitació cultural.

  • 1 (2004)
  • 2 (Summer 2004)

La Rosa dels Vents (2006–) (Own website, in Catalan)

Publicació de debat llibertari als Països Catalans.

  • 1st epoch (April 2006 – April 2009)
    • 0 (April 2006)
    • 1 (July 2006)
    • Special issue (September 11th, 2006)
    • 2 (January 2007)
    • 3 (September 11th, 2007)
    • 4 (March 2008)
    • 5 (September 2008)
    • 6 (April 2009)
  • 2nd epoch (Q3, 2009 – Autumn 2014)
    • 1 (Q3, 2009)
    • 2 (April 2010)
    • 3 (September 11th, 2010)
    • 4 (September 11th, 2011)
    • 5 (April 23rd, 2012)
    • 6 (Winter 2012-2013)
    • 7 (Autumn 2013)
    • 8 (Spring 2014)
    • Special issue (Autumn 2014)
  • 3rd epoch (February 2nd, 2019–)

Sedició (2017–)

Butlletí irregular dels Comitès Anarquistes dels PPCC.

  • 1st epoch (Spring 2017 – September 11th, 2020)
    • 1 (?)
    • 2 (?)
    • 3 (?)
  • 2nd epoch (September 11th, 2020–)
    • 4 (February 2022)

Brittany

Brug (1913 – 1914) (Breton Wikipedia)

Bruyères, Mensuel / Miziek.

  • 1 - Miz Genuér Genver (January 1913)
  • 2 - Miz C'hwevrer (February 1913)
  • 3 - Miz Meurzh (March 1913)
  • 4 - Miz Ebrel Imbrill (April 1913)
  • 5 - Miz Mae Mé (May 1913)
  • 6 - Miz Miz Méhéuén Even (June 1913)
  • 7 - Miz Gouere (July 1913)
  • 8 - Miz Eost (August 1913)
  • 9 - Miz Gwengolo (September 1913)
  • 10 - Miz Here (October 1913)
  • 11 - Miz Du (November 1913)
  • 12 - Miz Kerzu (December 1913)
  • 13 - Miz Genuér Genver (January 1914)
  • 14 - Miz C'hwevrer (February 1914)
  • 15 - Miz Meurzh (March 1914)
  • 16 - Miz Ebrel Imbrill (April 1914)
  • 17 - Miz Mé Maé (May 1914)
  • 18 - Miz Méhéuén Even (June 1914)
  • 19 - Miz Gouere (July 1914)

Le Poing dans la Gueule (1976) (Breton and European Digital Library, in English)

Journal autonomiste révolutionnaire, Journal autonomiste libertaire.

  • 1 (March-April 1976)
  • 2 (June 1976)

Dispac'h (1992? – 1997?)

Unknown subtitle and issues.

Dispac'h (1994 – 1995)

Journal du Réseau Autonome de Bretagne.

  • 0 (1994)
  • 1 (May 1995)

Le Huchoèr (2001 – 2009) (Breton and European Digital Library, in English)

Organe du collectif libertaire breton Huch !, Organe du collectif anarcho-indépendantiste Huch !, Journal anarcho-indépendantiste breton.

  • 1 (April 2001)
  • 2 (July 2001)
  • 3 (November 2001)
  • 4 (February 2002)
  • 5 (May 2002)
  • 6 (Late 2002)
  • 7 (February 2003)
  • 8 (May 2003)
  • 9 (September 2003)
  • 10 part 1 (December 2003)
  • 10 part 2 (December 2003)
  • 11 (March 2004)
  • 12 (June 2004)
  • 13 (September 2004)
  • 14 (December 2004)
  • 15 (March 2005)
  • 16 (June 2005)
  • 17 (September 2005)
  • 18 (January 2006)
  • 19 (April 2006)
  • 20 (December 2006)
  • 21 (2007)
  • 22 (2007)
  • 23 (March 2008)
  • 24 (November 2008)
  • 25 (July 2009)

Torromp Hor Chadennoù (2002–)

Unknown subtitle.

  • 1 (2002)
  • 2 (November 2002)

Na Doue Na Mestr (2009 – 2011) (Breton and European Digital Library, in English)

Bulletin anarcho-indépendantiste, Bulletin anarcho-indépendantiste gratuit de la Coordination Bretagne Indépendante et Libertaire.

  • 1 (Early 2009)
  • 2 (April 2009)
  • 3 (July 2009)
  • 4 (November 2009)
  • 5 (March 2010)
  • 6 (Mid-2010)
  • 7 (October 2010)
  • 8 (February 2011)

Occitania

Occitanie Libertaire/Occitània Libertària (1970 – 1975)

Édité par la Fédération Anarchiste-Communiste d'Occitanie, Federacion Anarquista-Comunista d'Occitània.

  • 1 (January 1970)
  • 2 (1971)
  • 3 (March 1972)
  • 4 (1972)
  • 5 (June 1973)
  • 6 (1974)
  • 7 (1975)
  • 8 (November 1975)

Jeune Languedoc/Pòble d'Òc (1971? – 1985)

Pòble d'Òc, Tribune révolutionnaire occitaine, Tribune révolutionaire pour une Occitanie libertaire.

  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4 (1971)
  • 5
  • 6 (June 1972)
  • 7 (1972)
  • 8 (September 15th, 1972)
  • 9
  • 10 (January 15th, 1973)
  • 11 (March 11th, 1973)
  • 12 (May 1st, 1973)
  • 13 (1973)
  • 14 (October 1st, 1973)
  • 15
  • 16 (February 1st, 1974)
  • 17 (April 1st, 1974)
  • 18 (July 1st, 1974)
  • Supplement to the 18th issue "Pòble d'Òc répond aux 107 faux, mensonges, oublis, affabulations... de Lutte Occitane"
  • Special issue 19/20
  • 21
  • 22 (March-April 1976)
  • 23 (1976)
  • 24
  • 25/26 (1977)
  • 27 (1977)
  • 28 (1977)
  • 29/30 (1978)
  • 31 (1978)
  • 32 (1978)
  • 33 (1979)
  • 34 (1979)
  • 35 (October 1979)
  • 36 (1980)
  • 37 (Q2, 1980)
  • 38 (1980)
  • 39 (1981)
  • 40 (1981)
  • 41 (Autumn 1981)
  • 42 (Q1, 1982)
  • 43 (Q2, 1982)
  • 44/45 (Q4, 1982)
  • 46 (June 1983)
  • Supplement to the 46th issue "Pòble d'Òc Dossier" (January 1985)

Basque Country

Askatasuna (1971 – 1980)

Revista teórica libertaria de Euskadi, Revista libertaria de Euskadi, Por la libertad contra la barbarie.

  • 1st epoch (January 1971 – September 1978)
    • 1 (January 1971)
    • 2 (June 1972)
    • 3 (October 1972)
    • 4 (February 1973)
    • 5 (June 1973)
    • 6/7 (1974)
    • 8 (May 1975)
    • 9/10 (October 1975)
    • 11 (January-February 1976)
    • 12/13 (May-June 1976)
    • 14/15 (November 1976)
    • 16/17 (March-April 1977)
    • 18 (October 1977)
    • 19/20 (December 1977-January 1978)
    • 21/22 (March-April 1978)
    • 23 (May-June 1978)
    • Special issue (September 1978)
  • 2nd epoch (May 1979 – August 1980)
    • 0 (May 1979)
    • 1 (June 1979)
    • 2 (July-August 1979)
    • 3 (September-October 1979)
    • 4 (October-November 1979)
    • 5 (November-December 1979)
    • 6 (January 1980)
    • 7 (February 1980)
    • 8 (March 1980)
    • 9 (April 1980)
    • 10 (May 1980)
    • 11 (June 1980)
    • 12/13 (July-August 1980)

Buruz Buru (2004)

No subtitle.

  • 0 (January 2004)
  • 1 (2004)

Aborijenen Internatzionala (2012–) (Own website, in Spanish)

No subtitle.

  • 1 (June 2012)
  • 2 (December 2015)

Canary Islands

El Baifo (1987 – 1996)

Revista alternativa, Revista alternativa de las Islas Canarias.

  • 1 (September-October 1987)
  • 2 (May 1988)
  • 3 (September 1988)
  • 4 (February 1990)
  • 5 (December 1991)
  • 6-7 (September 1994)
  • 8-9 (September-December 1996)

Arabisen (1991? – 1992?)

Fanzine libertario.

  • 1 (1991?)
  • 2 (1991?)
  • 3 (1991?)
  • 4 (1992?)
  • 5 (1992?)
  • ?

Grito de Protesta (1992?)

Fanzine de contrainformación y música alternativa elaborado en el valle de la Orotava, Tenerife, Islas Canarias.

  • 1
  • 2
  • 3 (1992?)
  • 4 (1992?)
  • 5
  • ?

Alegato (1992)

No subtitle.

  • 1 (April 1992)
  • 2 (July 1992)

Sicily

Sicilia Libertaria (1977–) (Own website, in Italian)

Giornale anarchico, Giornale anarchico per la liberazione sociale e l'internazionalismo.

Most issues can be found in the above link.

Sardinia

Sardegna libertaria (1978 – 1982)

Bollettino di informazione anarchica, Mensile anarchico.

  • Unique issue (1977)
  • 1 (1977)
  • Unique issue (1978)
  • 2 (October 1978)
  • 3 (November 1978)
  • 4 (1979)
  • Unique issue (January 1979)
  • Unique issue (February-March 1979)
  • Unique issue (May 1979)
  • Unique issue (June 1979)
  • Unnamed issue (April 1980)
  • 5 (1980)
  • 6 (1980)
  • 7 (1981)
  • 8 (1982)

Sardennia contras a s'Istadu (1983 – 1987)

Periodicu indipendentista anarchicu iscrittu dae pastoris, procaxus e crabaxus , Jornalhi indipendentista anarkiku, Giornali libertariu po sa liberatzioni de su populo isfruttau e colonizzau sardu.

  • 1st epoch (1983 – July 1984)
    • 1 (Early 1983)
    • 2 (1983)
    • 3 (1983)
    • 4 (1983)
    • 5 (December 1983)
    • 6 (1984)
    • 7 (1984)
    • 8 (June-July 1984)
  • 2nd epoch (1985 – 1987)
    • 1 (1985)
    • 2 (April-May 1985?)
    • 3 (1985)
    • 4 (1986)
    • 5 (1986)
    • 6 (May-August 1986?)
    • 7 (1986)
    • ? (1987)

Azione Anarchica/Azione Diretta (1986)

Bollettino interno della Confederazione Internazionale Anarchica per la Liberazione … Nazionale.

  • 1 (May 1986)

Antagonismu (1990 – 1991?)

Fozu de su muimentu rivolutzionariu sardu.

  • 1 (1990)
  • 2 (1990?)
  • 3 (1991?)

Asturias

Llibertaria (1983 – 1984?)

Fueyes mecanografiaes baxo la responsabilidá de la Comuña Llibertaria.

  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4 (1983)
  • 5
  • 6 (1984)
  • ?

L'Esperteyu (1985 – 1993)

"Fancín" na nuesa llingua, Fancín n'asturianu, La prensa llibre d'Asturies.

  • 0 (Late 1984)
  • 1 (February 1985)
  • 2 (March 1985)
  • 3 (June 1985)
  • 4 (December 1985)
  • 5 (Early 1986)
  • 6 (Mid-1986)
  • 7 (November 1987)
  • 8 (1988)
  • 9 (December 1988)
  • 10 (June 1989)
  • 11 (December 1989)
  • 12
  • 13 (January 1993)

Galicia

Arco da Vella (1981 – 1982) (Galician Wikipedia)

Pensamento libertario galego.

  • 1 (1981)
  • 2 (Summer 1981)
  • 3 (Summer 1982)
  • 4 (1982)

Websites

Catalan Countries

Organizations not independence anarchist, with independence anarchist members or similarities:

Brittany

Occitania

Basque Country

Organizations not independence anarchist, with independence anarchist members or similarities:

Canary Islands

Sicily

Organizations not independence anarchist, with independence anarchist members or similarities:

Sardinia

Andalusia

Castile

Hong Kong

Organizations not independence anarchist, with independence anarchist members or similarities:

Puerto Rico

Quebec

Aragon

Asturias

Galicia

References

TBD

Gallery

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