Absolute Monarchism

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"[T]he prince is not subject to his law, nor to the laws of his predecessors, but well to his own just and reasonable conventions."

Absolute Monarchism (AbMon), or Absolutism, is an authoritarian ideology which advocates for a single monarch with absolute rule over the state who is not bound by any formal rules, often being seen as owning the countries they reside over. Such rule is often justified through religious means though some modern proponents of this ideology use secular arguments.

History

Antiquity

Absolute Monarchy in Antiquity where monarchs managed to garner extreme amounts of power over their kingdoms. Sometimes even achieving a cult of personality, a famous example being the Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt.

Medieval Period

While most Monarchies in Europe were limited by the feudal system, some monarchs have managed to garner enough power to rule in an absolute or semi-absolute manner. The primary example of a de-facto absolute monarchy before the age of Absolutism was the Byzantine or Eastern Roman Empire, which had all institutions in some way subordinated to the Emperor worked around the feudal system as much as possible, instead relying on bureaucratic administration of provinces by governors appointed by the Emperor.

Another example of early Absolutism was Russia which had a lot of it's administration modeled after the Byzantine Empire, including the relation of the Monarch and the Church, a standing army loyal directly to the crown, and centralisation around the capital, Moscow and later St. Petersburg. This system would be established firstly by Ivan III the Great of Muscovy, adopting Byzantine administration and refugees from the fallen empire, proclaiming himself Tsar and heir of Constantinople and so forth. Ivan IV The Terrible continued these policies, further centralising power around the crown, establishing a standing army with which he conquered most of what is now European Russia, establishing a secret police and private army, curbing the power of the Boyars, engaging in purges against the aristocracy and siezing their lands, etc. The periods of absolutism in Russia would only be intterupted by periods of instability and decline as a result of regencies and interregnums, but would otherwise continue all the way into modernity.

During periods of political stability, Chinese dynasties would establish absolute power under the Mandate of Heaven, the Emperor would have total authority over all aspects of government. This would last untill some less competent or decadent emperors would abandon their duties and enjoy court life or during regencies, as children had no ability to govern on their own and their regent might make power-grabs for themselves, losing de-facto influence in the Court and Bureaucracy leading to rising corruption and decentralisation of power to the generals and governors.

Modern Day

Currently there are a couple of absolute monarchies, those being: Brunei Darussalam, Kingdom of Eswatini, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Sultanate of Oman, Vatican City and the State of Qatar. Some monarchies lost the title of "absolute" relatively recently, those being: The Kingdom of Bhutan, The Kingdom of Nepal (now a republic) and The Kingdom of Tonga. There are also some Non-Ceremonial Constitutional Monarchies that get lumped in to the category of "absolute monarchies" by left-wing journalists, example being the Principality of Liechtenstein.

Some powerful dictatorships are put into the category of "Absolute Monarchies", notably the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, although both followers of such dictatorships' ideologies and followers of absolute monarchism disagree with this assessment.

Beliefs

Absolutism

Absolutism is characterized by the concentration of powers; There is no division of powers like the one that will define the limited monarchy typical of liberal revolutions . The legislative power , the judicial power and the executive power are exercised by the same authority: the king as supreme magistrate in all areas. The kings word is law. His decisions are unappealable sentences, and the property and life must be given to the king .

God-Given Right to Rule

Most absolute Monarchies lay their claim to power on Religion, making most absolute monarchies theocratic or Establishmentarian in nature. This concept is called "The Divine Right of Kings" in Europe and "The Mandate of Heaven" in China, and "Devaraja/Chakravarti" in India and its sphere of influence in Southeast Asia, although there are some differences in their theology and practices. This does not have to be the case and there can be a secular absolute monarchy.

Supremacy as a requirement to order

One of the main secular arguments for Absolute Monarchy is that for a society to have order and security, it must have power that stems from one absolute body and that body should be the monarch.

Monarch is the state

The positive acts of the exercise of powers (legislation, administration and jurisdiction) were supported by the last decision-making authority, the monarchy . All the powers of the state emanated from the monarch, being not above but below it. This made the king the state.

Subject to reason

Although the king's authority is subject to reason , and ultimately justified by the common good , the existence of any external limit or any type of question to his decisions is explicitly denied; in a similar way to how parental authority is exercised by the paterfamilias (the king as " father " of his " subjects " - paternalism -). Such justifications in fact impose the unlimited nature of the exercise of power by the king: any abuse can be understood as a necessity imposed by reason of State.

Limits to absolutism

The political model of absolute monarchy has as its central feature the concentration of all power in the king without control or limits of any kind. There should be no powers or " intermediate bodies " that would hinder the direct relationship between the king and each of his subjects. Despite these principles, both the material conditions of the time (which make the real existence of a power exercised continuously in an unfathomable territory, without efficient communications - especially in colonial empires, where the laws are obeyed but not fulfill -), such as the incontestable ideological, economic and social power of the Church and the survival of the seigneurial regime and particularistic customs and institutions (internal customs, multiplicity of languages, currencies, weights and measures, regional privileges , Courts of the different kingdoms peninsular parliaments in Spain, judicial Parliaments in France, Parliament in England), determined that, in fact, the power of absolute kings had limits; whether or not they were expressed explicitly.

In legal terms, the limitations to absolutism are three:

  • The divine law, to which the king, like all Christians, is subject.
  • The parts of the Law that cannot be the subject of legislation by the king, but are considered natural law and are determined by theoretical speculation by jurists, such as the law of nations , which regulates both the rights of foreign peoples, to which the king has to abide when entering into international relations (even in the event of war); or certain questions of private law of internal validity, such as questions relating to property, inheritance, mayorazgo , etc. Those that are linked to the direct exercise of government were displaced by the monarchs in the process of consolidating absolutism, such as the recourse to courts or parliaments for the definition of certain measures (in France the States General stopped being cited in 1614, and They only met again in 1789).
  • The fundamental laws of the Kingdom: a set of norms relating to the foundation of the State that do not depend on the will of the king, but are based on tradition , on a kind of " historical Constitution " (whose widespread recognition will later justify the drafting of texts liberal constitutional laws, such as the Constitution of 1812 ). Within these principles, not necessarily written, are:
    • The principle of legitimacy, a consequence of the need for a notion of continuity of the State, which, although identified with the person of the king, cannot but be independent of his physical person: when the king dies, the crown must pass to his successor ( which implied complex ritualizations: the double body of the king , proclamations such as The king is dead, long live the king ). The king could not modify the law of succession that he had legitimized himself to access the throne. Despite this, some were changed, such as the Salic law that traditionally governed the French monarchy and, after the arrival of the Bourbons , in the Spanish one.
    • The need to establish a regency in cases such as the king's minority or incapacity.
    • The principle of religion; which is not essentially a feature of absolutism. The confessional nature of the State implies that the head of the State has the confession of the State. This was especially true for Catholic monarchies, whether absolute or not. The conversion of Henry IV of France in order to be king gave a clear example ( Paris is worth a mass ). On the contrary, in Germany the Schmalkaldic War had made it impossible to form any type of absolute monarchy (or any type of centralized State); and the opposite principle cuius regio eius religio (the religion of the king is that of the kingdom) was established . In the case of the kingdom of England, the possibility of a Catholic accessing the throne was seen as a threat of absolutism; Therefore, the identification of the king with the head of the Anglican Church was one of the most important features of the parliamentary monarchy.

Difference between ideologies

Totalitarianism

It should not be confused with totalitarianism. In totalitarianism, power is concentrated in the State as an organization, and in turn said State is dominated and managed in all its aspects by a political party ; This in turn imposes on the community a very defined ideology that penetrates all social activities (art, science, economics, behavioral habits). In absolutism there is no "State" per se (and even less a political party) but rather the State is identified with an individual who exercises authority without the need for any ideology; In fact, absolutism is not interested in imposing its control and influence over all aspects of social life, but rather it is enough to establish an all-embracing authority whom the governed must only obey and never question.

Difference between Absolute Monarchy and Despotism

According to Montesquieu, the difference between absolute monarchy and despotism is that in the case of the monarchy, a single person governs with absolute power by fixed and established laws, whereas a despot governs by his or her own will and caprice.

Variants

Albania

  • Ahmet Zogu, or Zog I of Albania was the leader of Albania from 1922 to 1939. At age 27, he first served as Albania's youngest ever prime minister (1922–1924), then as president (1925–1928), and finally as king (1928–1939).

He held various ministerial posts in the Albanian government before being driven into exile in June 1924, but returned later in the year with Yugoslav and White Russian military support and was subsequently elected prime minister. Zog was elected president in January 1925 and vested with dictatorial powers, with which he enacted major domestic reforms, suppressed civil liberties, and struck an alliance with Benito Mussolini's Italy. In September 1928, Albania was proclaimed a monarchy and he acceded to the throne as Zog I, King of the Albanians.

During his leadership, he implemented fiscal reforms such as privatization and established a militaristic, nationalist and traditionalist regime. Zog also established a secular state, drawing from the Republic of Turkey as his example. There was a drive in Albania to expand to a “Greater Albania”. Zog wanted to reclaim territories of neighboring countries populated by ethnic Albanians such as Kosovo in Yugoslavia. However, fascist Italy betrayed him, occupying Albania and putting Victor Emmanuel in charge as a figurehead, with the true power being held by fascist collaborations, which were later reorganized into the republican Baili Kombetar. After The LANÇ kicked out the fascists, they declared Albania a republic, ending any chance for a Zogist restoration.

China

  • Yuan Shikai was a Chinese military and government official who rose to power during the late Qing dynasty and eventually ended the Qing dynasty rule of China in 1912, later becoming the Emperor of China.

He established the first modern army and a more efficient provincial government in North China during the last years of the Qing dynasty before forcing the abdication of the Xuantong Emperor, the last monarch of the Qing dynasty in 1912. Through negotiation, he became the first President of the Republic of China in 1912. This army and bureaucratic control were the foundation of his autocratic rule. In 1915 he attempted to restore the hereditary monarchy in China, with himself as the Hongxian Emperor.

He first tried to save the dynasty with a number of modernization projects including bureaucratic, fiscal, judicial, educational, and other reforms, despite playing a key part in the failure of the Hundred Days' Reform with others conservative elements.

Hamidism/Ottomanism

Abdul Hamid II was one of the longest-ruling sultan, ruling from 31 August 1876 – 27 April 1909. At the beginning of his reign, he proceeded over the creation of the first constitution which would reign until 1878 when he would centralize his rule into an absolute monarchy due to Young Turk interference. The Ottoman Empire also had great relations with Germany with Bismarck saying that 90% of the intelligence in Europe was owned by Abdul II. He was also anti-zionist, multiple zionists tried to buy Palestine from him but he refused saying that land cannot be bought it can only be conquered, and that selling land would be disgraceful to the soldier's sacrifice. He also banned Jews from praying, he also denied Jewish suffrage. He was overthrown in April by the young Turks stationed in Salonica Greece. Some consider him to be one of the first victims of Zionism for his refusal to transfer ownership of Palestine

Holy Britannian Empire (Code Geass)

In the anime Code Geass, the Holy Britannian Empire (神聖ブリタニア帝国 Shinsei Buritania Teikoku) (1813 a.t.b.-2018 a.t.b.) was a nation born from the defeated remnants of the British Empire and was the world's dominant military superpower that ruled over one-third of the world and one of the large Empire-unions that control Earth initially in the early 21st Century, the others being the Chinese Federation, the Europia United, and later United Federation of Nations. After the events of Zero Requiem, the empire disintegrated and later reformed as the Principality of Britannia. Britannia appears to be an absolute monarchy, meaning that the Royal Family holds most or all authority and administrative power, though there is also a bicameral legislature in effect, at least in the Britannian Homeland. The Upper House is the House of Lords, which likely represents the interests of the aristocrats, while the Lower House is the Senate, and the Senators may be drawn from their State Legislatures. With the aristocracy dominating the House of Lords, the Senate represents the common people.

The Emperor is the absolute ruler and the head of state of Britannia, the Prime Minister serves as the head of government. The Areas are under the control of the Viceroys, who are themselves either part of the aristocracy, the Imperial Family itself, or the military. In the light novels, a "Lord President" position is mentioned in the Homeland, but it is unknown how much authority it wields. While the policies of Britannia vary depending on the reigning emperor, its succession is based on Social Darwinism rather than divine mandate as their name and a verse of the national anthem ("His [the emperor's] bloodline immortal and pure") would suggest. Consequently, much bloodshed and in-fighting occur between members of the royal family; one who wants to become the next monarch has to lie, cheat, and murder their way to the top, similar to the Turkish rule of succession within the Ottoman Empire.

Lower nobility controls much of the business and bureaucracy outside the Royal Family and, judging by the number of legal and illegal businesses that appear in occupied areas, capitalism is widely encouraged. The residents of conquered nations can become Honorary Britannian citizen, and while not genuine Britannians or free from discrimination, they are entitled to the same basic rights. Those who refuse to accept honorary citizenship are consigned to live in rundown ghettos, while those who accept it may live in the prosperous Britannian colonial cities, called Concessions. Britannian corporations are described as Zaibatsu in Japanese, referring to powerful business cliques. Britannia possesses advanced forms of communication including modern cell phones, earpieces, the internet and television, and information seems to flow freely, despite rigid censorship and state propaganda in news broadcasts. The Tokyo Concession abounds with giant solar panels around its edges, and vehicles seem to lack exhaust pipes, possibly indicating that Britannia is a green society free of emissions. Britannia is a highly capitalist and consumerist society and the ruthless 'survival of the fittest' nature of capitalism fits well with Britannia's belief in Social Darwinism. Corporations in Britannia apparently wield large amounts of power and influence. These characteristics apparently result in spite for the Britannians being built up, especially among the Numbers. It has been demonstrated that some Numbers (specifically the Elevens) seem to have little concern for the well-being of Britannian innocents, viewing them as no better than the government.

Among the Britannians themselves, there does not appear to be a great amount of discontent with the current governmental system. This indicates that the Britannian government is not as repressive of the lower class Britannian citizens, in comparison to the repression of the Numbers. However, power struggles and feuding amongst the royalty and nobility seems to be commonplace. Despite these ruthless characteristics, knightly concepts of chivalry and honor also plays a major role in Britannian culture as well. This is particularly seen in the military and often clashes with the existing prejudices and loyalty to the monarchy. Britannian soldiers are seen to have sacrificing their own lives to protect those they believe in implies a strong belief in honour and loyalty. Although Britannian forces have constantly attacked and massacred Numbers, even the most racist Britannians were shocked and horrified by the genocidal killing during the events at Special Administrative Zone massacre. The lords of Euro-Britannia have expressed disagreement and disgust for the cost of innocent civilians that their invasion plan could have had on Western Europe.

Personality and Behavior

They may be shown to speak Elizabethan/Shakespearean English unless they represent someone outside of England. They emanate a Regal persona but are also very quick to anger if exposed to dissent. He hates feudalism and constitutional monarchy and fights with them frequently, but his biggest enemy is Republicanism. He likens himself to great emperors of old and the champion of civilization and glory. May be quick to shout OFF WITH THEIR HEADS!

How to Draw

Flag of Absolute Monarchism

The symbol for Absolute Monarchism is a combination of the color purple, which is a color commonly associated with monarchism as well as a black V-shaped pattern which in the Polcompball community is used to represent authoritarianism in other ideology balls.

  1. Draw a ball with eyes.
  2. Draw a "V" shape in black.
  3. Fill the inside part of the ball purple, and the outside black.
  4. Add a crown on top (Gold for the crown, and red for the jewels),

And you're done!

Color Name HEX RGB
Purple #B83DBA 184, 61, 186
Black #141414 20, 20, 20
Gold #FEE400 254, 228, 0
Red #FF0000 255, 0, 0


Relationships

Loyalists

  • Autocracy - Only I am to rule, there will be no equals to me!
  • Hobbesianism - My gratitude to thee for providing my philosophical basis shall be eternal! What dost thou mean thou art fine with a collective sovereign?
  • Monarchism - I loveth thee the way thou art, mine father. Unmixed, whole, personal, & absolute monarchy!
  • Noocracy - Am I not the wisest of philosopher kings?
  • Caesarism - From the ashes of Rome, my empire shall rise as a phoenix.
  • Byzantine Model - Oh well, it never fell.
  • Chinese Theocracy - The wise men of the east know my ways.
  • Christian Theocracy - God Himself hath sanctioned my rule!
  • Islamic Theocracy - I rule with thee in the middle east, I am the defender of the Ummah.
  • Imperial Cult - Worship me, and me alone.
  • Enlightened Absolutism - My empire shall spread technological advancement and civilization!
  • Bonapartism - The only good product of the French Revolution. You have shown both the First and Second R*publics who's boss.
  • Black Hundredism - God save the Tsar!
  • Braunism - A contemporary Polish, free market-loving variant of myself.
  • Neoreactionaryism - A secular contemporary proponent of mine own system and a very good student.
  • Neocameralism - One of his many wise ideas and an interesting system for my Kingdom.
  • Centralism - I have had enough of all these vassals, autonomies, and local laws. The law in this realm is MY law.
  • Holy Britannian Empire- The most based out of all fictional political systems! ALL HAIL BRITANNIA! Kinda uncomfortable with the racism, though. But other than that, we're good.

Dubious

  • Meritocracy - We oft allow non-nobles to rise to prominence; howe'er, that doth depend on mine feelings.
  • Stratocracy - Serve me and me alone, not your generals, ME.
  • Hoppeanism - I know not why thou dost not like me if thou art an anarchist, but I will playeth along, if that doth keep me in power.
  • Aristocracy - If he followeth mine rules, he is a fine fellow; however, should he revolteth I shall not hesitate to deprive him of his title, wealth, and if possible, life itself.
  • Totalitarianism - Everything within the state, nothing outside or against the state? Sure, but I AM the state, do not forget that!
  • Monarcho-Fascism - Sometimes like me, sometimes a filthy constitutionalist.
  • Integralism - Yes yes, the Revolution was an abomination, but I still refuse to share the power with the church.

Traitors

  • Anarcho-Monarchism - What curse had been layed upon my family that brought upon your existence?! MUST FATHER HAVE TO [REDACTED] EVERYTHING THAT MOVES!?
  • Jacobinism - Louis was great! Thou wert a mistake! Your severed jaw is the crown of Bonaparte!
  • Republicanism - What a stupid STUPID system! Eugh!
  • Feudalism - NO! NO MORE SHALL YOU RULE YOUR COUNTIES, RISE AGAINST THE CROWN! NO STUPID FEUDAL LAWS, NO BORDERGORE, NO MORE!
  • Leninism - Thou wert a failure from the beginning. Thou hast only prolonged thy death.
  • Juche - A political dynasty does not a monarchy make.
  • Parliamentarianism - BLOODY REGICIDE!!! The King's right to rule is given by God! How darest thou oppose him!
  • Constitutional Monarchism - You make a bargain with the devil, you think the plebs will ever let you have ANY power?
  • Ceremonial Monarchism - You are a castrated abomination, another unfortunate spawn of our bloodline, be glad I condemn the slaying of kin!
  • Liberalism - The third estate, what an unenviable position to be in.
  • Marxism–Leninism - Absolutely DISGUSTING!
  • National Liberalism - The 19th century patriotic movements were quite terrible.
  • Tridemism - HA HA Chinese Empire go... Wait, NOT MY GLORIOUS EMPIRE!!! STOP DESTROYING IT!!!
  • Anti-Authoritarianism - "Down with the monarchy", thou say? If you were wise, you would keep thy mouth shut.
  • Ochlocracy - Know your place, or I will unleash a musket volley.
  • Illegalism - TO THE DUNGEONS WITH THEE, CRIMINAL SCUM!
  • Insurrectionary Anarchism - I WILL HAVE YOU HUNG, DRAWN AND QUARTERED YOU WRETCHED SWINE!

Further Information

Literature

The divine right of kings asserted in general] by W.P. Esq.

Wikipedia

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Notes

  1. For most historical absolute monarchies, there usually existed a claim to the divine right to rule from some deity(ies).
  1. Here's how Louis XIV's rule can be considered corporatist: Centralized Authority: Louis XIV was a proponent of absolute monarchy, which meant that he centralized authority in his own hands and exerted control over various institutions and social groups. In a corporatist framework, a strong central authority plays a significant role in organizing and regulating various sectors of society. Economic Regulation: The Sun King employed mercantilist policies that aimed to increase France's economic power and wealth. These policies involved close collaboration between the state and various industries, which is a characteristic of corporatism. The state regulated trade, manufacturing, and commerce to achieve economic goals, often using guilds and other associations to facilitate this regulation. Control Over Nobility: Louis XIV significantly reduced the power and independence of the French nobility, who traditionally held significant political and economic influence. By requiring the nobility to reside at his palace at Versailles, he could monitor their activities more closely, making the aristocracy more subservient to the monarchy. This kind of centralization aligns with corporatist principles of subordinating societal groups to the state. Patronage and State Bureaucracy: Louis XIV expanded the state bureaucracy, and he relied heavily on appointing loyal bureaucrats to administer the state. This system of patronage and centralized administration is somewhat reminiscent of corporatist systems, where the state plays a significant role in managing various aspects of society, including the economy and public administration. State Support for the Arts and Culture: The Sun King was a patron of the arts and played a significant role in the cultural and artistic life of France. He established the French Academy and supported various artists and writers. This level of state support for culture can be seen as an example of the state involving itself in societal activities, another feature of corporatism.
  2. Ivan restricted the peasants right to movement, laying the foundations for Serfdom