National Syndicalism

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National Syndicalism is an economically left, nationalist, authoritarian and culturally right ideology. It emerged from the tendency of revolutionary syndicalists to ally with integral nationalists. It opposes Capitalism, liberal democracy and, usually, Secularism. The ideology is usually associated with either Integralism or Fascism.

History

Portuguese National Syndicalism

The Order of Christ Cross, used as the symbol of the National Syndicalist Movement

National Syndicalism in Portugal was characterized by the condemnation of the totalitarianism present in German and Italian societies during the 1930s, its leader, Francisco Rolão Preto, declared during a banquet that the National Syndicalist Movement was "beyond democracy, fascism and communism". The National Syndicalist Movement had a strong Catholic inspiration, with the Order of Christ Cross being their symbol, they were very popular among university students and young soldiers. It endorsed Catholic social teaching, Christian personalism, integralism, municipalism and a restoration of the traditional monarchy and were opposed to communism and capitalism. Its members were also known as the Blueshirts, as they used blue shirts as uniforms.

Its leader, Francisco Rolão Preto declared on an interview to the United Press that:

"Fascism and Hitlerism are totalitarian, divinizers of the state and caesarists: we pretend to find in the Christian tradition of the Portuguese people the formula that allows the harmonization of the sovereignty of the national interest with the moral dignity of free men."

He criticized the Estado Novo for adopting a single-party system typical of fascism, which he hated, due to this criticism, the national syndicalist journal 'Revolução!' was suspended on 24 July. On November of the same year, the national syndicalists split, the majority decided to support Salazar and integrate the party with the União Nacional, abandoning the principles of partisan independence defended by Rolão Preto and Alberto Monsaraz.

On 10 July 1934, Rolão Preto was arrested and subsequently exiled and on 29 July of the same year, national syndicalism was forbidden by the Salazarists.

Spanish National Syndicalism

See Falangism

Italian National Syndicalism

In the early 20th century, nationalists and syndicalists were increasingly influencing each other in Italy. From 1902 to 1910, a number of Italian revolutionary syndicalists including Arturo Labriola, Agostino Lanzillo, Angelo Oliviero Olivetti, Alceste De Ambris, Filippo Corridoni and Sergio Panunzio sought to unify the Italian nationalist cause with the syndicalist cause and had entered into contact with Italian nationalist figures such as Enrico Corradini. These Italian national syndicalists held a common set of principles: the rejection of bourgeois values, democracy, liberalism, Marxism, internationalism, and pacifism while promoting heroism, vitalism, and violence. Not all Italian revolutionary syndicalists joined the Fascist cause, but most syndicalist leaders eventually embraced nationalism and "were among the founders of the Fascist movement," where "many even held key posts" in Mussolini's regime. Benito Mussolini declared in 1909 that he had converted over to revolutionary syndicalism by 1904 during a general strike.

Enrico Corradini promoted a form of national syndicalism that utilized Maurassian nationalism alongside the syndicalism of Georges Sorel. Corradini spoke of the need for a national syndicalist movement that would be able to solve Italy's problems, led by elitist aristocrats and anti-democrats who shared a revolutionary syndicalist commitment to direct action through a willingness to fight. Corradini spoke of Italy as being a "proletarian nation" that needed to pursue imperialism in order to challenge the "plutocratic" nations of France and the United Kingdom. Corradini's views were part of a wider set of perceptions within the right-wing Italian Nationalist Association (ANI) that claimed that Italy's economic backwardness was caused by corruption within its political class, liberalism, and division caused by "ignoble socialism". The ANI held ties and influence amongst conservatives, Catholics, and the business community.

A number of Italian fascist leaders began to relabel national syndicalism as Fascist syndicalism. Mussolini was one of the first to disseminate this term, explaining that "Fascist syndicalism is national and productivistic… in a national society in which labor becomes a joy, an object of pride and a title to nobility." By the time Edmondo Rossoni became secretary-general of the General Confederation of Fascist Syndical Corporations in December 1922, other Italian national syndicalists were adopting the "Fascist syndicalism" phrase in their aim at "building and reorganizing political structures… through a synthesis of State and labor". An early leader in Italian trade unionism, Rossoni and other fascist syndicalists not only took the position of radical nationalism, but favored "class struggle". Seen at the time as "radical or leftist elements," Rossoni and his syndicalist cadre had "served to some extent to protect the immediate economic interests of the workers and to preserve their class consciousness". Rossoni was dismissed from his post in 1928, which could have been due to his powerful leadership position in the Fascist unions, and his hostilities to the business community, occasionally referring to industrialists as "vampires" and "profiteers".

With the outbreak of World War I, Sergio Panunzio noted the national solidarity within France and Germany that suddenly arose in response to the war and claimed that should Italy enter the war, the Italian nation would become united and would emerge from the war as a new nation in a "Fascio nazionale" (national union) that would be led by an aristocracy of warrior-producers that would unite Italians of all classes, factions, and regions into a disciplined socialism.

In November 1918, Mussolini defined national syndicalism as a doctrine that would unite economic classes into a program of national development and growth.

Beliefs

WIP

How to Draw

Cercle Proudhon Eagle design

Flag of National Syndicalism
  1. Draw a ball.
  2. Fill the ball with black.
  3. Draw the Cercle Proudhon eagle in red.
  4. Draw the eyes and you're done!
Color Name HEX RGB
Black #141414 20, 20, 20
Red #FF0000 255, 0, 0

Portuguese design

Flag of National Syndicalism (Portuguese version)
  1. Draw a ball
  2. Color it blue
  3. In the center, draw a white circle
  4. In the circle, draw a red outline of a cross
  5. Add the eyes and you're done
Color Name HEX RGB
Blue #00309A 0, 48, 154
White #FFFFFF 255, 255, 255
Red #D72821 215, 40, 33

JONS design

Flag of National Syndicalism (JONS version)
  1. Draw a ball
  2. Fill it black
  3. Draw 8 red spokes
  4. Draw a black circle in the middle
  5. Draw a white claw
  6. Add the eyes
Color Name HEX RGB
Black #141414 20, 20, 20
Red #DB0A13 219, 10, 19
White #FFFFFF 255, 255, 255


Relations

Friends

Frenemies

  • Mutualism - I owe most of my inspiration to you! Wait, why are you looking at me weird?
  • Sorelianism -A huge influence on most of us, especially on Cercle Proudhon. Stop looking at me weird!
  • Welfare Chauvinism - Good direction by far, you are slowly getting there. But you have to reject completely the Free Market. At least SD had already embraced the 3rd position and works with trade unions.
  • Francoism - You abandoned national syndicalism for him!?
  • Anarcho-Syndicalism - Degenerate anarchist progressive, but somewhat based economics.
  • French Fascism - I thought he would follow my ideology but he betrayed France.
  • Marxism–Leninism - You have some good ideas but I am not Nazi.
  • National Conservatism - Ayy, you get me pretty much! But be more pro-unionist.
  • National Bolshevism - Too much left-wing economically, syndicates should still have an important role in the national economy, but still overall decent. Can I join the GANG?
  • Strasserism - A bit too Racialist socially, plus you're associated with Nazis, but you are still better than them.
  • Marxism - I like the idea of class struggle but why so materialistic? Also a h*gelian.
  • Socialism - You taught me how to strike and I respect you for that, but please embrace nationalism.
  • Yellow Socialism - Syndicalist and Nationalist? Based! But capitalism is cringe.
  • Fascism - You did a good job spreading my ideas but why the Hegelianism and Totalitarianism?
  • Nazism- Same as above, and you put racialism over syndicalist ideals. But you and Mussolini were a good help for the Spanish National Syndicalists.

Enemies

Further Information

Literature

Wikipedia

Gallery

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